In line with Afghanistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia bordered by Iran, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. It has a population of 28.7 million people. Colonized by Ghengis Khan, the Ottomans, and eventually the British, Afghanistan became independent in 1919 as a monarchy. The ruling king introduced democratic reforms in 1964; these allowed extremist parties to gain hold and the king was overthrown in a coup in 1973. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support communists after yet another coup, but was forced to withdraw by resistance from various factions including Islamic mujahedeen fighters backed by the United States and other countries. The mujahedeen were not party to peace accords leading to the Soviet withdrawal in 1989, and infighting between them and other warlords continued through the mid-1990s, when the Taliban, an extreme religious movement, took control of most of the country by promising control and order.

about Afghanistan in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

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