Category Archives: B

Blue Flu

Blue Flu

Law Enforcement Strikes/”Blue Flu”

In line with Joseph F. King

about Blue Flu in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The first recorded police strike in the United States of America occurred in Ithaca, Bigg Apple (New York), on April 3, 1889. As a result of a pay cut from $12 to $9 a week, the entire force, all appointed by a prior Republican administration, protested and were removed. A new force of loyal Democrats was quickly appointed to fill these vacancies. Several days later, the old pay rate was reinstituted. Salaries would continue to be the cause of unrest among police officers. In 1918, following the social unrest and skyrocketing inflation caused by World War I, several police agencies were being affected by moves toward unionization and strike. In early September 1918, some officers in the Cincinnati Police Department met clandestinely to discuss forming a union; word spread, and the police chief suspended all those involved. Quickly, all the officers of the department refused duty.

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act

In line with Kimberly D. Hassell

about Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In 1987, the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Bill) was introduced in Congress. President William J. Clinton signed the Brady Bill into law seven years later, on November 30, 1993. The Brady Bill, named after James Brady, the White House press secretary wounded in the 1981 attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan, required licensed firearms importers, manufacturers, or dealers to wait five business days before selling a handgun to a person not licensed under federal law. During the five-day waiting period, the local police chief was required to conduct a background investigation on the prospective purchaser, including research in state and local record-keeping systems and in a national system designated by the United States Attorney General, to determine the purchaser's eligibility to acquire the handgun. The Brady Bill also provided for exceptions to the five-day waiting period (known as the cooling off period).

Bombs

Bombs

Bombs and Bomb Squads

In line with William F. McCarthy

about Bombs in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The history and development of bomb disposal squads in the United States of America are scarred by injury, death, and lawsuits. In fact, change or advancement has usually been the unfortunate by-product of a major injury or death. Currently, approximately 440 of these specialized units exist in the United States of America (approximately 405 police department units and 35 fire department units) that are responsible for the detection and rendering safe of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), hazardous materials, and weapons of mass destruction. In total, approximately 2,300 certified bomb technicians in the United States of America have graduated the elite Hazardous Devices School (HDS) at the Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, which has been administrated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation since 1971. Approximately 125 women have successfully completed the HDS training, and approximately 42 females are active certified bomb technicians in the United States of America.

Berkemer v. McCarty

Berkemer v. McCarty

Berkemer v. McCarty as a Leading U.S. Case

Berkemer v. McCarty is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Berkemer v. McCarty may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Berkemer v. McCarty tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Berkemer v. McCarty is also explained, together with the relevance of Berkemer v. McCarty impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Berkemer v. McCarty

468 U.S. 420 (1984)

Bounty Hunter

Bounty Hunter

Bounty Hunter

In line with Dennis Alan Bartlett

about Bounty Hunter in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

A person arrested on probable cause of having committed a crime is entitled to bail (except for a capital crime) under the Eighth Amendment. If the person charged, called a principal, is released from jail through the services of a bail agent, he or she is released from detention but is not “free”; only the conditions of confinement have changed. The principal has paid the bail agent a premium for posting the bond and assuming the risk of his or her not appearing in court. The purpose of the bond is to ensure that the principal appears in court to answer the charges pending and, in the interim, to allow the principal to resume the semblance of as normal a life as possible and help in the preparation of his or her defense.

Biological Terrorism

Biological Terrorism

Chemical and Biological Terrorism

In line with Ellen Sexton

about Biological Terrorism in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Chemical and biological weapons are rarely used by terrorists, yet they have captured the public imagination. These weapons have the potential to kill many thousands of people, but are far more difficult to acquire, control, and use effectively than conventional weapons. Chemical and biological weapons, though often classed together, have very different characteristics and require quite different responses. A chemical attack on civilians can be considered in many ways similar to a hazardous materials incident, while a biological weapons attack would be more like a disease epidemic. Both, of course, would have the added complication of requiring a criminal investigation and could spread considerable fear through the community. The first responders on the scene of a chemical weapons attack would be local responders. Despite the multiple federal response teams trained to deal with the aftermath of a terrorist attack, the brunt of response will be borne by local units.

Local Response to Chemical and Biological Terrorism

In line with Ellen Sexton

about Biological Terrorism in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Chemical and biological weapons are rarely used by terrorists, yet they have captured the public imagination. These weapons have the potential to kill many thousands of people, but are far more difficult to acquire, control, and use effectively than conventional weapons. Chemical and biological weapons, although often classed together, have very different characteristics and require quite different responses. A chemical attack on civilians can be considered in many ways similar to a hazardous materials incident, whereas a biological weapons attack would be more like a disease epidemic. Both, of course, would have the added complication of requiring a criminal investigation and could spread considerable fear through the community. The first responders on the scene of a chemical weapons attack would be local responders. Despite the multiple federal response teams trained to deal with the aftermath of a terrorist attack, the brunt of response will be borne by local units.

Brewer v. Williams

Brewer v. Williams

Brewer v. Williams as a Leading U.S. Case

Brewer v. Williams is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Brewer v. Williams may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Brewer v. Williams tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Brewer v. Williams is also explained, together with the relevance of Brewer v. Williams impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Brewer v. Williams

430 U.S. 387 (1977)

Brown v. Mississippi

Brown v. Mississippi

Brown v. Mississippi as a Leading U.S. Case

Brown v. Mississippi is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Brown v. Mississippi may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Brown v. Mississippi tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Brown v. Mississippi is also explained, together with the relevance of Brown v. Mississippi impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Brown v. Mississippi

297 U.S. 278 (1936)

Broken Windows

Broken Windows

“Broken Windows” or Incivilities Thesis

In line with Ralph B. Taylor

about Broken Windows in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The term incivilities thesis refers to a family of closely related, exploratory, problem-solving techniques about the roles played by misdemeanors, uncivil and rowdy behaviors, some delinquent acts, and lack of property and facilities maintenance in urban communities (Taylor, 1999, 2001). Over the past quarter century, theorists and policymakers have enlarged the scope and nature of these roles. During this period of theoretical elaboration, advocates of this perspective have suggested relevant outcomes affected include individual and community fear levels, and changes therein; community crime rates, and changes in those rates; and whether neighborhoods remain stable or enter or accelerate a period of decline. This entry describes this theoretical growth process in brief; outlines shifting reasons behind its popularity; summarizes some criticisms made of these ideas; points to some ongoing areas of conceptual confusion; and highlights relevant, empirical supporting evidence. The seed sprouted in the mid-1970s.