Category Archives: C

Crime Prevention

Crime Prevention

Crime Prevention Units

In line with Steven P. Lab

about Crime Prevention in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Throughout most of history, preventing crime and responding to criminal behavior was the purview of the victim, his or her family, and community residents. There was no police force (or criminal justice system, for that matter) as we know it today. The earliest responses to crime included retribution and revenge on the part of the victim and his or her family. Indeed, the earliest laws outlined the role of the victim in addressing crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). The Code of Hammurabi (approximately 1900 BCE), for example, outlined retribution by the victim and/or the family as the accepted response to injurious behavior. Lex talionis , the principle of “an eye for an eye,” was specifically set forth as a driving principle in the Hammurabic law. Such laws and practices provided legitimacy to individual citizen action. The existence of formal systems of social control is relatively new.

County of Sacramento v. Lewis

County of Sacramento v. Lewis

County of Sacramento v. Lewis as a Leading U.S. Case

County of Sacramento v. Lewis is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, County of Sacramento v. Lewis may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about County of Sacramento v. Lewis tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of County of Sacramento v. Lewis is also explained, together with the relevance of County of Sacramento v. Lewis impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of County of Sacramento v. Lewis

523 U.S. 833 (1998)

Communications Interoperability

Communications Interoperability

Communications Interoperability

In line with Rick Murphy

about Communications Interoperability in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The ability of public safety personnel to communicate in a timely, reliable, and secure manner via radio has always been a critical requirement for the mission operations of public safety and disaster response personnel at the local, state, federal, and tribal levels. Compounding that requirement, recent acts of domestic terrorism, civil disturbance, youth violence, and natural disasters requiring multiagency and multijurisdictional public safety response have dramatically underscored the need for public safety officials to better communicate in order to coordinate their efforts at the scene of an incident-not just within agencies, but across jurisdictional and functional lines. This communications capacity, essential to the protection of lives and property, is known as interoperability. Interoperability is formally defined as communications links that permit persons from two or more different agencies to interact with one another and to exchange information according to a prescribed method in order to achieve predictable results.

Cold Case

Cold Case

Cold Case Investigations

In line with Karyn Hadfield

about Cold Case in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Most homicide investigators consider the first 72 hours the most crucial for developing the leads necessary to solve a case. An investigation that lacks viable leads, cooperative witnesses, or physical evidence may be stalled indefinitely. With passing time, these unsolved cases become “cold.” Departmental budget constraints, personnel changes, and the soaring homicide rate have all contributed to the growing number of unsolved cases. Specialized cold case squads have become a popular option for many police departments and prosecutors' offices overwhelmed by large numbers of unsolved cases. Reallocation of resources, focused on the review of these cold files, and advancements in computer technology and DNA analysis have made the resolution of some cold cases possible. The homicide rate progressively increased in the United States of America every year from 1960 through the mid-1990s; the greatest escalation occurred between the mid-1980s and early 1990s.

Confessions

Confessions

Confessions

In line with Abby Stein

about Confessions in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Confession is the highest drama. In every Hollywood crime story, fabled cops ply their trade and bad guys seal their fate in the interrogation room, where ruthless, third-degree tactics unlock the guilty suspect's compulsion to confess. In such stories, the moment of confession is fully climactic. Sign on the dotted line, pal. Case closed. In the real world, too, an individual's admission of guilt may be tantamount to conviction. Notwithstanding empirical evidence that casts doubt on the validity of confession evidence, and the legal questions that surround self-incrimination, a suspect's declaration of guilt carries almost unequaled weight with police, the courts, and the public. Because confessions are potentially so damaging to criminal defendants, both federal and state courts have codified criteria for entering confessional statements into evidence. The admissibility of confession evidence is determined by its adherence to a set of fairly succinct legal guidelines.

Child Welfare

Child Welfare

Child Welfare

In line with Mara Sullivan

about Child Welfare in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Child abuse and neglect are very serious issues faced by our country. In a current survey, half of all Americans think that child abuse and neglect are the most important public health issues-more important than other issues such as drug and alcohol abuse, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS. Over the past decade, the percentage of reported child maltreatment has risen consistently. Between the years of 1985 and 1995, there was a 49% increase in reported child maltreatment. However, many cases of child abuse and neglect go unreported. Three million referrals to Child Protective Services agencies were made in the year 2000 concerning the welfare of approximately 5 million children. Nationally, 61.7% were screened in, and 38.3% were screened out. Screened-in referrals were those that received investigations to determine if the allegations of maltreatment could be substantiated, and screened-out referrals were referred to other service agencies.

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act

In line with Dryden Watner

about Children's Online Privacy Protection Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In July 1998, the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA) was introduced by Senators Richard H. Bryan (R-NV) and John McCain (R-AZ). The act was proposed in response to a Federal Trade Commission (FTC) report that found that Web sites targeted at children were collecting personal information without any safeguards. The FTC was concerned that collection of personal information from children without parental consent would be an unfair and deceptive trade practice. COPPA was passed within months of its introduction and took effect on April 21, 2000. COPPA requires that commercial Web site operators who have knowledge that they are dealing with a child aged 12 or under, or who aim their content at children, obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting any personal information from a child. A child's personal information may include his or her full name, home address, e-mail address, telephone number, and Social Security number.

Civilian Complaint Review Boards

Civilian Complaint Review Boards

Civilian Complaint Review Boards

In line with William M. Wells & Joseph A. Schafer

about Civilian Complaint Review Boards in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Civilian complaint review boards, also referred to as citizen oversight of police, operate in diverse ways. These boards include citizens in the process of handling complaints against individual police officers and monitoring police organizations. A general goal is to enhance police accountability by ensuring that officers use appropriate levels of force, officers treat individuals without bias, police organizations support policies and procedures that facilitate professionalism, and procedures exist for the fair receipt and investigation of complaints against the police. Dramatic incidents of police misconduct focus attention on the mechanisms that exist or do not exist to prevent and respond to such conduct. Citizen involvement in oversight of police is viewed by advocates as one potentially valuable part of a system that can prevent misconduct; it is not seen as a panacea for preventing police misconduct.

Coolidge v. New Hampshire

Coolidge v. New Hampshire

Coolidge v. New Hampshire as a Leading U.S. Case

Coolidge v. New Hampshire is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Coolidge v. New Hampshire may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Coolidge v. New Hampshire tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Coolidge v. New Hampshire is also explained, together with the relevance of Coolidge v. New Hampshire impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Coolidge v. New Hampshire

403 U.S. 443 (1971)

Counterterrorism

Counterterrorism

Counterterrorism

In line with Richard N. Holden & David L. Carter

about Counterterrorism in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

September 11, 2001, forever changed police operations. Prior to the terrorist attacks of that date, state and local police officers had few responsibilities regarding antiterrorism or intelligence gathering and analysis. Since that time, however, local law enforcement has been asked to accept an ever-expanding role in both intelligence gathering and antiterrorism activities. Unfortunately, law enforcement, especially at the state and local level, was ill-prepared for these new responsibilities. Homeland security, at first merely a catchphrase, evolved into a government office with rapidly expanding authority. It was widely accepted that state and local law enforcement would play a prominent role in the new high-security environment, but defining that role has become problematic. The difficulties have revolved around two distinct areas: law enforcement intelligence versus national security, and an almost universal lack of police knowledge about international and domestic terrorist movements.