Category Archives: C

Civil Liability

Civil Liability

Civil Liability

In line with Evan J. Mandery

about Civil Liability in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Law enforcement officials are subject to civil liability for intentional actions on their part to deprive citizens of constitutional rights. This liability derives primarily from the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, enacted as a response to the systematic injustices leveled against blacks in the aftermath of the Civil War. Although written with a narrow constituency in mind, the Act is cast in broad terms, providing a remedy against “any person” who, under color of state law, deprives any person of “any rights, privileges or immunities secured by the Constitution.” The Act is codified as 42 United StatesC. §1983. During the 1960s and 1970s, the United States Court of last resort of the Country began widening the coverage of Section 1983 to match its expansive language. In Monroe v. Pape (1961), the Court held that Section 1983 provides a remedy for any constitutional violation committed under color of state law.

Clearance Rates

Clearance Rates

Clearance Rates

In line with James P. Levine

about Clearance Rates in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Clearance rates are the percentage of reported or discovered crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) that are solved by the police. Cases are considered solved when arrests are made, even though they may not result in a conviction. Exceptional clearances are instances when police believe they have identified the perpetrator but are unable to make an arrest, as is the case when the perpetrator commits suicide or flees the country, or when the victim will not cooperate. Clearances also can occur when someone arrested for a particular offense then confesses to other crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) or is implicated in their commission. Clearance rates vary enormously from crime to crime.

Combined DNA Index System

Combined DNA Index System

Combined DNA Index System

In line with Michelle Y. Richter

about Combined DNA Index System in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Imagine a law enforcement tool that can take biological information from a crime scene, enter it into a computer, and obtain information sufficient to tentatively identify a suspect for investigation. Similar to automated fingerprinting systems, genetic profiles can be obtained from a crime scene, people (to include victims or offenders), or items belonging to missing persons. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is a computerized, hierarchical system that allows the entry and storage of genetic profiles for law enforcement purposes. The system was initially developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1990 and operated on a limited basis. The DNA Identification Act of 1994 provided the FBI with the authorization to expand the project on a national level and it was four years later, in October 1998, the National DNA Index System (NDIS) officially went online.

Crime Statistics

Crime Statistics

Crime Statistics

In line with Matthew J. Giblin

about Crime Statistics in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Accurate measures of crime are valuable for many reasons; they aid in the formulation of criminal justice policy, in the assessment and operations of criminal justice agencies, in the creation of prevention and intervention programs, and in the development of criminological theory. Two long-established federal data collection programs, the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) begun in 1929 and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS; formerly the National Crime Survey) begun in 1973, have been, and continue to be, used to measure levels of crime in the United States of America. Each program is characterized by strengths and weaknesses. A third, emerging data collection program, the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), when fully operational, will draw upon and merge many of the elements from both the NCVS and the UCR into a single data collection program. The UCR is a summary reporting program overseen by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Crime Statistics and Analysis

In line with Peter K. Manning

about Crime Statistics in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

To understand the meaning of crime statistics, one must first define crime. Crime is a very flexible concept, something like a woven carpet, that produces powerful associations from the public and agencies charged with its control. It varies cross-culturally, historically, and spatially, as well as by social morphology and cultural and social differentiation. Since Adolphe Quetelet first advocated that social order could be captured metaphorically by numbers, and the regularity and stability associated with large numbers, commensurability has been sought across measures and numbers have been used to represent social trends. Official crime data, like official statistics generally, are associated with the development of the nation-state and its need to tax and count its citizens. They appear to function differentially in Anglo-American (United States) societies and European states.

Christopher Commission

Christopher Commission

The Christopher Commission

In line with Camille Gibson

about Christopher Commission in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Christopher Commission was a special, independent investigative body created on April 1, 1991, by Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley to examine the structure and operations of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) with the assistance of the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office. The Commission's mission was to recommend reform to eliminate the excessive use of force by law enforcement, specifically by the LAPD. Its creation was a response to the George Holliday videotape of 27 California law enforcement officers, 23 of whom were from the LAPD, who were present at the savage beating of 25-year-old African American (United States) motorist Rodney King on Sunday morning, March 3, 1991. The videotape was the subject of numerous press reports both in the United States of America and throughout the world. The beating involved 56 baton strikes, plus numerous kicks to King's head and body by four LAPD officers-Sergeant Koon and officers Briseno, Powell, and Wind.

Chain of Custody

Chain of Custody

Chain of Custody

In line with Bryant Daniel Almeida

about Chain of Custody in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Chain of custody is a concept in the study and application of law that applies to the proper handling of evidence within a criminal proceeding. It refers to the ability to positively guarantee the identity, integrity, and chronological history of evidence from the point of acquisition through to examination and testimony. The sensitive nature of evidence, as used in a court of law to convict a person or persons of a crime, requires strict custodial procedures to be followed in a precise and careful manner to avoid later allegations of tampering or misconduct. These custodial procedures are carefully logged, documented, and attested via signature by every identifiable person at every stage of custody, thus creating a probable chain of custody that can be traced back to the point of acquisition.

California v. Ciraolo

California v. Ciraolo

California v. Ciraolo as a Leading U.S. Case

California v. Ciraolo is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, California v. Ciraolo may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about California v. Ciraolo tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of California v. Ciraolo is also explained, together with the relevance of California v. Ciraolo impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of California v. Ciraolo

476 U.S. 207 (1986)

Campus Safety and Security Acts

Campus Safety and Security Acts

Campus Safety and Security Acts

In line with Vertel T. Martin

about Campus Safety and Security Acts in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Prior to 1990, many college and university administrators did not report information about incidents of crime and violence that occurred on their campuses since there was no enforced mandate to report such occurrences. This changed in 1990, when Congress enacted the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act (Pub. L. No. 101-542, 104 Stat. 2385) as an amendment to the Student Consumer Information Act of 1976. This legislation was promulgated after years of lobbying by the Clery family (whose daughter had been murdered on a college campus in Pennsylvania in 1986), campus law enforcement officials, and others who had been affected by, or who were concerned about, the rise in crime on the campuses of higher education institutions.

Citizen Police

Citizen Police

Citizen Police Academies

In line with Joseph A. Schafer

about Citizen Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Citizen police academies (CPAs) are intended to provide community residents with insights into the nature of police work. These programs are designed to serve a community relations function by educating citizens about the structure and operation of their local police department. Citizens are exposed to the various problems faced by the police in their community in the hope that CPA graduates will become more sympathetic to the difficulties of modern police work. Ideally, graduates will act as advocates for their local police, multiplying such a program's benefits. The idea driving CPA programs is that educating a small number of citizens on how local police agencies and officers operate will improve broader community support. This idea was first applied in 1977 in the Devon and Cornwall Constabulary in the United Kingdom. The Constabulary designed a 10-week “Police Night School” that select citizens were invited to attend.

Curfews

Curfews

Curfews

In line with Nicole R. Green

about Curfews in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In general, curfews are regulations that prohibit the presence of people on streets or other public properties during certain hours of the day. For more than a century, curfews have been invoked at various times in the United States of America in an effort to maintain social order. Curfews enacted in the United States of America fall into one of two categories: juvenile curfews or riot curfews. America's first juvenile curfew laws emerged in the late 19th century in large urban areas and were intended to eliminate crime among immigrant youth. Curfews were also used by many communities during World War II to prevent children from becoming wayward while their parents were toiling in the war effort.