Category Archives: D

Dispatch

Dispatch

Dispatch

In line with Tod W. Burke

about Dispatch in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

“If I had a choice between a two-way radio and a gun, I'd take the radio.” The above quote is from a former Maryland police officer and reflects the importance of the dispatcher. Although the role of the dispatcher is critical for the survival of law enforcement officers and the citizens who call upon them, administrators, officers, and citizens often misunderstand dispatchers. Dispatchers must process complex information in a matter of seconds to ascertain nonemergency from emergency calls. They must attempt to calm the caller, as some may be in great panic and unintelligible. The dispatcher must determine the nature of the problem and the location of the incident, and inquire if anyone has been injured.

Document Examiners

Document Examiners

Document Examiners

In line with James J. Horan

about Document Examiners in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Forensic document examination is one of the oldest disciplines in forensic science. There are references to forgery experts in Roman times. The forensic document examiner examines questioned documents to determine how, when, and by whom they were prepared. The questioned document examination can involve determining authorship of documents; identifying forgeries; determining the age of documents; deciphering obliterated, erased, mutilated, or charred documents; or answering any other questions that may be raised about a document. The forensic document examiner should not be confused with the graphologist or graphoanalyst. The forensic document examiner uses scientific techniques to determine the genuineness of handwriting by comparison of details in the known and the questioned writing. The graphologist tries to determine the character and personality of the writer by the general formation of the letters. Graphology is more of an art form and has not received acceptance in the scientific community or the courts.

Department of Commerce

Department of Commerce

National Marine Fisheries Service of the Department of Commerce

In line with Katherine B. Killoran

about Department of Commerce in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The mission of National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), sometimes referred to as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries, is to develop and enforce domestic fisheries regulations as specified by federal law, international agreements, and treaties. NMFS monitors both foreign and domestic compliance with these regulations inside the 200-mile United States Exclusive Economic Zone. The NMFS is committed to a sustainable use philosophy that attempts to balance commercial interests and recreational interests while preserving the health of United States marine resources. The NMFS Office for Law Enforcement (OLE) protects both commercial and recreational fishery resources, marine mammals, and other threatened or endangered species and manages the NOAA's 13 National Marine Sanctuaries. The NMFS receives an annual budget of approximately $700 million, with more than $50 million earmarked for enforcement and surveillance activities.

Dunaway v. New York

Dunaway v. New York

Dunaway v. New York as a Leading U.S. Case

Dunaway v. New York is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Dunaway v. New York may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Dunaway v. New York tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Dunaway v. New York is also explained, together with the relevance of Dunaway v. New York impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Dunaway v. New York

442 U.S. 200 (1979

Drug Testing

Drug Testing

Drug Testing of Employees

In line with Heather R. Draper & Richard C. Li

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Drug use became a serious concern in the workplace during the 1980s. Companies involved in the oil, chemical, and nuclear industry as well as travel and transportation sectors, became areas of concern especially when accidents occurred causing deaths and immense financial ramifications. Drug testing has evolved and is now used for a variety of reasons. The main uses for drug testing include screening potential employees during the interview process, creating safety precautions for workers and the surrounding public, and monitoring drug use in the prison population. Today all federal employees, transportation employees, prisoners, and athletes competing on the national, Olympic, or professional level are subject to drug testing under current federal laws. In addition to these federal guidelines, each state has adopted its own guidelines involving drug testing in the workplace. Many private sector companies are also adopting drug testing into their bylaws in order to achieve a drug-free workplace.

Drug Testing of Police

In line with Kim Holland & Jeffry T. Walker

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Under the provisions of the Fourth Amendment, a search and seizure can only be made with a warrant, or without a warrant based on probable cause or under certain recognized exceptions. It was left to the courts, however, to determine such issues as whether intrusions beyond the body's surface were reasonable searches and whether individuals could expect to be free from bodily intrusions by government employers. Bodily intrusion, typically in the form of urine testing, is the primary method of drug testing employees. The level of reasonableness in these cases is typically addressed by balancing the employees' expectations of privacy against the agency's needs and interests in testing for the use of drugs. When it comes to law enforcement personnel, the issue of drug testing has an additional ethical dimension because police are generally held to a higher standard.

Defense Criminal Investigative Service

Defense Criminal Investigative Service

Defense Criminal Investigative Service

In line with Deborah L. Sawers

about Defense Criminal Investigative Service in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Established in 1981, the Defense Criminal Investigative Service (DCIS) is the investigative arm of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) Inspector General. The original Inspector General Act of 1978 did not call for an Inspector General for the DoD, but later amendments did. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, DCIS is a civilian law enforcement agency that employs about 400 criminal investigators and support staff and has offices in more than 40 cities throughout the United States of America and Europe. DCIS special agents have the authority to make arrests, execute search warrants, and serve subpoenas. Additionally, they conduct interviews and appear as witnesses before grand juries, at criminal and civil trials, and at administrative proceedings.

Dickerson v. United States

Dickerson v. United States

Dickerson v. United States as a Leading U.S. Case

Dickerson v. United States is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Dickerson v. United States may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Dickerson v. United States tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Dickerson v. United States is also explained, together with the relevance of Dickerson v. United States impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Dickerson v. United States

530 U.S. 428 (2000)

Department of Justice

Department of Justice

Department of Justice

In line with Katherine M. Newbold

about Department of Justice in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Department of Justice (DOJ), an agency of the judiciary branch of the federal government, is headed by the United States attorney general (AG), who reports directly to the president of the United States of America and is a cabinet-level officer. The mission of the DOJ has expanded considerably since its creation, and now includes, To enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States of America according to the law; to ensure public safety against the threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; administer and enforce the nation's immigration laws fairly and effectively; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. DOJ is similar to a major law firm with divisions of attorneys with identified areas of expertise.

DNA

DNA

DNA

In line with Lawrence Kobilinsky

about DNA in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Although the discovery of DNA dates back to 1869 with Frederich Miescher's study of a phosphorus-containing substance isolated from the nuclei of cells found in discarded bandages of wounded soldiers, it was not until 1953 that Watson and Crick published its molecular structure. Many studies since then have established that DNA is the material responsible, in part, for the inheritance of virtually all of our traits. Exceptions to this rule include one's fingerprint (ridge) pattern, which is established during the third to fourth month of fetal development. The discovery that DNA is actually an antiparallel double helix helped to explain why this unique molecule, with the assistance of “helper” molecules, is able to replicate within the cell.

National DNA Index System

In line with Peter D' Eustachio

about DNA in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

DNA typing has been widely implemented over the past 15 years as a tool for associating human body fluids and tissue fragments recovered at a crime scene with the individuals involved in the crime. A person's DNA typing pattern is the same for all cells and tissues in the person's body and does not change with time. DNA typing can therefore be used not only to determine whether a suspect's known DNA typing pattern matches that of semen recovered from a particular rape victim, but also to determine whether a convicted rapist's known DNA typing pattern matches that of semen recovered in connection with various unsolved sexual assaults. In the United States of America, a National DNA Index System (NDIS) has been established, under the auspices of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), to facilitate this broad investigative use of DNA typing.

Drug Enforcement

Drug Enforcement

Drug Enforcement

In line with Tammy S. Garland

about Drug Enforcement in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In February 2002, President George W. Bush unveiled a new campaign to target the drug problem within the United States of America. The strategy emphasized supply reduction through aggressive drug enforcement and interdiction programs while simultaneously emphasizing demand reduction through effective drug education, prevention, and treatment programs. Under this plan, the federal government allocated almost $2 billion to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to maintain the War on Drugs. This trend in drug enforcement is not innovative, but is simply a continuation of past policies. Since the establishment of federal agencies designed to combat the use, manufacture, and sale of illegal drugs, the federal government has increasingly appropriated funding to combat the illicit drug trade. In addition, the ever-changing policies have evolved to encompass a number of agencies working simultaneously to eliminate the flow of illicit drugs throughout the country.

Drug Enforcement in the United States

In line with Michael D. Lyman

about Drug Enforcement in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The enforcement of drug laws represents one of the major components of American (United States) law enforcement. Although drug enforcement has been a function of law enforcement since the early part of the 20th century, it gained considerable momentum in the mid-1970s when drug abuse began to soar and federal money for training, education, and equipment was made available to police agencies to address the problem. Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies share responsibility for most of the nation's drug enforcement efforts. When these entities combine their efforts, they primarily deal with the supply side of the nation's drug abuse problem. In 1973, the federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed to restrict the supply of controlled substances through coordination with state and local agencies. Today, the DEA remains the lead federal drug enforcement agency and has nearly 3,000 agents.