Category Archives: D

Duty Belt

Duty Belt

Duty Belt

In line with Ellen H. Belcher

about Duty Belt in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

A duty belt, also referred to as a gun belt, is perhaps the most important and conspicuous element of a law enforcement uniform. Generally 1_ to 2_ inches wide, this belt serves as a portable storage device and displays the tools required for the daily activities of law enforcement. The constant presence of the duty belt and its gear not only serves to equip officers for most daily occurrences, but also is a symbolic show of authority and preparedness, serving as an effective deterrent to would-be criminals.

Drunk Driving

Drunk Driving

Drunk Driving Enforcement

In line with Michelle R. Hecht

about Drunk Driving in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Driving while impaired is one of the nation's most frequently committed violent crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary), and Americans rank drunk driving as their number one highway safety concern. Each year, 42,000 people die in motor vehicle crashes, and more than 16,000 of these fatalities are alcohol or drug related. However, fatalities and injuries involving impaired driving, also known as drunk and drugged driving, are largely preventable. Although the definition of impaired driving includes drug-induced impairment, most of the research and arrest data focus on impairment caused by alcohol. Since 1990, alcohol-related fatalities have been reduced by 25%, from 22,084 in 1990 to 16,653 in 2000. However, in more recent years, the rate of such incidents has been slowly creeping up again.

Mothers against Drunk Driving

In line with Kimberly D. Hassell

about Drunk Driving in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is the largest crime victims' assistance organization in the world with more than 3 million members and supporters. Members of this nonprofit organization are committed to stopping drunk driving, to preventing underage drinking, and to supporting victims of these crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) and their families. The organization's slogan is “Voice of the Victim,” with its primary focus on assisting victims through the justice process. MADD members have been instrumental in the passage of hundreds of federal and state anti-drunk driving laws, with the most recognized being the 1984 federal law requiring all states to increase the legal drinking age to 21. Since MADD's inception, alcoholrelated traffic fatalities have declined dramatically. Studies have documented that the 21 minimum drinking age law has saved an average of 1,000 young lives each year since its passage.

Detectives

Detectives

Detectives

In line with William F. McCarthy

about Detectives in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police departments throughout the United States of America who assign police officers to perform retroactive investigations (investigating past crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) and collecting evidence) are called detectives; investigators; or, less frequently, inspectors. Detectives are also engaged in undercover operations, electronic surveillance, decoys, stings, and stakeouts in order to investigate continuing criminal enterprises. They are usually appointed to this detective designation, rather than promoted as the result of a competitive civil service exam process, which is the common promotion method for sergeant, lieutenant, and captain. The process for promotion to detective can range from a formal career path, evaluation of arrest activity, training, and education, to an abrupt instant reward for a heroic act or for solving an important or highly publicized case. The position of detective is the most celebrated, romanticized, and televised activity in the field of policing.

Department of Homeland Security

Department of Homeland Security

Department of Homeland Security

In line with Donald J. Rebovich

about Department of Homeland Security in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In the days immediately following the terrorist attacks against the United States of America on September 11, 2001, the nation was witness to a quick succession of official acts taken by the federal government to help prevent further such catastrophes. These acts included a presidential proclamation of a state of national emergency, the presidential authorization of the Use of Military Force bill, and the speedy establishment of 94 antiterrorism task forces throughout the country, one for each United States attorney office. Probably the most striking and far-reaching action taken by the administration of President George W. Bush in the wake of the events of September 11, 2001, was the presidential announcement to Congress of the creation of the Office of Homeland Security, with ex-governor of Pennsylvania Tom Ridge as its director.

Drug Legislation

Drug Legislation

Drug Policy and Legislation

In line with Christine Ivie Edge

about Drug Legislation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Although much of the public debate surrounding drug policy occurs at the federal level, many important decisions are made at the state and local levels. Local and state narcotics control within the United States of America emerged in the latter part of the 1800s, originating in those communities directly threatened by drugs such as morphine, opium, and cocaine. A current trend in drug policy involves a growing shift of responsibility from the federal level to the state and local levels. This is plainly seen in the area of enforcement where local police make the preponderance of arrests. Increasingly, states and localities are also assuming larger roles in the funding and implementation of social programs used to combat drug abuse. Both federal and state drug laws typically involve the use of mandatory sentencing. On the state level, laws can vary in severity and change from time to time.

Discretion

Discretion

Police Discretion

In line with Michael S. Scott

about Discretion in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police officers exercise a tremendous amount of discretion in carrying out their functions. That is, they make many choices from a range of possible actions or inactions available to them that are not specifically prescribed by law. This simple notion, that seems self-evident to some and controversial to others, lies at the heart of many issues of policing in democratic societies. That police do exercise discretion was only openly acknowledged beginning in the 1960s. The conventional views prior to that time, and persisting among some long thereafter, was that the police function was entirely a ministerial one, that police took only those actions specifically authorized or mandated by legislative bodies. Under this view, policing was understood to be simply a matter of enforcing the laws on the books.

Davis v. United States

Davis v. United States

Davis v. United States as a Leading U.S. Case

Davis v. United States is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Davis v. United States may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Davis v. United States tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Davis v. United States is also explained, together with the relevance of Davis v. United States impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Davis v. United States

512 U.S. 452 (1994)

Drug Trafficking

Drug Trafficking

Drug Trafficking

In line with Ric Curtis

about Drug Trafficking in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Drug traffickers are typically depicted in Hollywood movies as larger-than-life people whose elaborate schemes move enormous amounts of drugs across international borders. Despite, and sometimes because of, governmental interventions, these kinds of drug traffickers do exist, but from a law enforcement perspective, drug trafficking can refer to almost any act that facilitates the distribution of an illegal substance, from the biggest drug cartels to the smallest “mule” to the lowliest street-level seller. Our knowledge about upper-level traffickers has been largely confined to first-person accounts written by retired traffickers and descriptions provided by law enforcement agencies such as the Drug Enforcement Administration ( ) or the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ( ). Because of the difficulty of gaining access to upper-level drug traffickers, there has been little academic research on this topic that does not rely upon “official” data sources.

DNA Testing

DNA Testing

DNA Testing

In line with Peter D'Eustachio

about DNA Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Analysis of physical evidence left at the scene of a crime often plays a critical role in identifying the individuals who were involved in the crime. In many sexual assaults, this evidence is semen left by the perpetrator; in violent crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) it might be blood or bits of tissue from the victim or the assailant. Since 1985, an extensive effort has been made to develop laboratory procedures for DNA typing as a tool for linking such evidence to known individuals. DNA, the genetic material of humans and all other cellular organisms, consists of four small molecules, the nucleotide bases adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, and thymidine, assembled into a linear polymer. The human genome contains approximately two billion bases of DNA divided into 23 segments, called chromosomes. The order of the bases in a complete human genome has recently been determined.

Diplomatic Security Service

Diplomatic Security Service

Diplomatic Security Service

In line with Sanford Wexler

about Diplomatic Security Service in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) is a little known law enforcement agency within the United States Department of State. Its primary mission is to protect United States personnel, property, and information at embassies and missions around the world. In the United States of America, the DSS safeguards the secretary of state, the United States ambassador to the United Nations, and foreign dignitaries below the head-of-state level. The agency also responds to terrorist attacks against Americans overseas, investigates passport and visa fraud, and issues security clearances to Department of State employees. The origins of the DSS date back to the period shortly before World War I. At that time, German and Austrian spies were engaged in espionage activities in the United States of America. The foreign agents were using forged or stolen identity papers. President Woodrow Wilson authorized the secretary of state to form a security agency within the Department of State.