Category Archives: H

Hafer v. Melo

Hafer v. Melo

Hafer v. Melo as a Leading U.S. Case

Hafer v. Melo is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Hafer v. Melo may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Hafer v. Melo tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Hafer v. Melo is also explained, together with the relevance of Hafer v. Melo impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Hafer v. Melo

502 U.S. 21 (1991)

Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al.

Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al.

Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al. as a Leading U.S. Case

Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al. is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al. may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al. tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al. is also explained, together with the relevance of Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al. impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada et al.

542 U.S. 177 (2004)

Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

In line with Brian S. MacNamara

about Hate Crimes in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) are defined as those criminal acts in which the perpetrator was motivated by bias against the victim based on the victim's religion, race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. Criminal acts motivated by hatred are not new: the Romans persecuted Christians, the Nazis committed crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) primarily against Jews but also against Gypsies and other religious or ethnic minorities, and acts against African Americans due solely to their skin color have been a common occurrence in the United States of America from colonial times and continue, to a far lesser extent, to the present. A resurgent interest in bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) began in the 1980s.

Law Enforcement Response to Hate Crimes

In line with Christopher D. Maxwell

about Hate Crimes in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) motivated by one's hatred toward another's race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or other innate characteristics are unilaterally condemned by Western societies as unjustified attacks. Although such crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) have existed for centuries, it was not until the 1980s that they gained recognition as a special type of criminal offense. Today, these crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) are labeled in federal and state statutes, and in local law enforcement policies, as hate- or bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). James Garofalo and Susan Martin identify three reasons that there is special focus on hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). First, because hate crime offenders target innate characteristics of a group, victims may have greater difficulty in coming to terms with their victimization. Second, some hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) appear to have contagious effects on the victim's community.

Hostage

Hostage

Hostage Negotiations

In line with Robert Louden

about Hostage in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Hostage taking is an ancient form of criminal activity, and it was even an accepted tool of diplomacy in certain societies. Although such acts have a long history, they are still employed today, as demonstrated in Iraq in 2004, where various factions have seized military and civilian personnel from several countries as hostages in hostilities between those factions and United States forces. Hostage taking is defined by the United Nations as “the seizing or detaining and threatening to kill, injure, or continue to detain another person to compel a third party to do or abstain from doing any act as a condition for the release of the hostage.” Prior to 1973, hostage negotiation did not exist as a function in United States

Homicide

Homicide

Homicide Investigation

In line with Vernon J. Geberth

about Homicide in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Homicide investigation is a profound duty with awesome responsibilities. The homicide investigator becomes keenly aware of the reality of death and the impact it has on both society and the surviving family. It requires the investigator to develop an understanding of the dynamics of human behavior, as well as the essential details of professional investigation. The purpose of homicide investigation is to bring justice to the deceased and his or her surviving family, and also to uphold society's interest in apprehending those who commit such acts. This mission is accomplished by conducting a professional and intelligent investigation that results in the identification and apprehension of the killer and a successful prosecution.

Homicide Trends in the United States

In line with Alfred Blumstein

about Homicide in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Homicide rates in the United States of America had been declining steadily since they reached a peak in 1991-1993. As each report came out, the nation-and particularly the mayors and police chiefs-celebrated the steady decline. By 2000, the rates had reached their lowest level in more than 30 years. For most of that period, United States homicide rates oscillated between about 8 and 10 homicides per 100,000 population, a rate that is about five times that of most industrial countries. That rate was 8 in 1985 and climbed about 25% to a value of 10 by 1991, has been declining steadily since 1993, and by 2000 was under 6 per 100,000. These results are shown in Figure 2 , along with the graph for robbery (scaled down by a factor of 25), which follows the homicide rate rather closely.

Hispanic American Police Command Officers Association

Hispanic American Police Command Officers Association

Hispanic American Police Command Officers Association

In line with Becky L. Tatum

about Hispanic American Police Command Officers Association in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Hispanic American (United States) Police Command Officers Association (HAPCOA) was established in California in 1973 and is the largest and oldest organization of Hispanic American (United States) command officers in law enforcement and criminal justice agencies in the United States of America and Puerto Rico. Formerly known as the Mexican American (United States) Police Command Officers Association, the association changed its name in 1984 to reflect a broader representation of Hispanic command-level officers. HAPCOA offers assistance in the recruitment, retention, and promotion of qualified Hispanic American (United States) police officers at all ranks and levels of government. It further serves as an advocate for issues of importance for Hispanic American (United States) law enforcement officers and the Hispanic community. A third goal of the association involves the development of partnerships and outreach activities with other law enforcement organizations, civilian agencies, and corporations in an effort to increase community involvement, understanding, and support.

Hate Crimes Statistics Act

Hate Crimes Statistics Act

Hate Crimes Statistics Act

In line with Nickie Phillips

about Hate Crimes Statistics Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) Statistics Act (HCSA) became law in 1990 in response to a number of high-profile bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) that occurred during the 1980s. These crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) became the basis of claims by a variety of interest groups that such actions had reached epidemic proportions and that the crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) did not receive sufficient attention from law enforcement agencies. To support this view and in an effort to combat bias-motivated incidents, various groups, including the Anti-Defamation League, the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force/Anti-Violence Project, and the Southern Poverty Law Center, began to collect and disseminate data on such incidents. The activities of these groups led congressional leaders to pass federal legislation to address the matter. The resulting HCSA was introduced in 1985 and signed into law by President George H. W. Bush in 1990.

Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking

In line with Elizabeth Bartels

about Human Trafficking in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Trafficking of women into the United States of America for sexual exploitation first came to the nation's attention between 1860 and World War I. There was a large amount of migration of young women from China, Japan, and Central and Eastern Europe to American (United States) cities. The Mann Act was enacted in 1910, criminalizing the transport of women across state lines for “immoral purposes.” Formally titled the White Slave Traffic Act (36 Stat. 825), the Mann Act was also intended to protect the nation's minors against sexual exploitation. After 1914, public concern over sex trafficking peaked and faded as an important issue on the American (United States) political front. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a reemergence of women trafficked into the United States of America for sexual exploitation.

Harrison Act

Harrison Act

Harrison Act

In line with Barry Spunt

about Harrison Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Harrison Act, passed by Congress in 1914, was the first federal law in the United States of America to criminalize the nonmedical use of drugs. The chief proponent of the measure was Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, a major force in American (United States) politics at the time, who was closely identified with traditionalism, particularly with fundamentalist Christianity. He urged that the law be promptly passed to fulfill United States obligations under international treaties aimed primarily at solving the opium problems of the Far East, especially China. The law was sponsored by Representative Francis Burton Harrison (D-NY). The Harrison Act applied only to opium; morphine and its various derivatives, such as heroin; and the derivatives of the coca leaf, such as cocaine. It was basically a revenue code designed to exercise some measure of public control over these drugs.

Housing Police

Housing Police

Housing Police

In line with Gretchen Gross

about Housing Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Housing police are police hired specifically to provide law enforcement services in public housing developments. The local Housing Authority (HA) that manages the public housing units may establish its own Housing Police Department, or the HA may choose to work with the local police department. The federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) provides funding and guidance for police services in public housing, but the authorization to establish a police department with full police powers comes from the state legislature. In order to improve the delivery of law enforcement in public housing, HUD commissioned Carroll Buracker and Associates to study policing in six HAs. Their report, Policing in Public Housing , provides recommendations for improvement and a model contract for arranging supplemental police coverage from the local police department. Recent changes in housing police departments can be attributed to the Buracker study and subsequent management directives from HUD.