Category Archives: I

International Criminal Justice Mechanisms

International Criminal Justice Mechanisms

International Criminal Justice Mechanisms (State Participation in Investigations and Prosecutions)

In line with Samuel Akorimo

about International Criminal Justice Mechanisms in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Trials for war crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) have a long history, dating back to and probably before the time of the ancient Greeks. Some trials considered to be international in character are traced back to the 15th and 17th centuries. The International Military Tribunals (IMTs) formed after World War II, ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts, and the International Criminal Court (ICC) are four categories of institutions that have been involved in the administration of international criminal justice and have made significant contributions at various stages of their evolution. Since IMTs began, there has been marked evolution of the framework for the role of states in investigations and prosecutions, characterized by a remarkable increase in the role of states. In the IMTs, the victorious states played a primary and leading role in the processes. While the ad hoc tribunals exercise independent jurisdictions, they require the cooperation and assistance of states.

Illinois v. Lidster

Illinois v. Lidster

Illinois v. Lidster as a Leading U.S. Case

Illinois v. Lidster is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Illinois v. Lidster may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Illinois v. Lidster tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Illinois v. Lidster is also explained, together with the relevance of Illinois v. Lidster impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Illinois v. Lidster

540 U.S. 419 (2004)

Inspectors General

Inspectors General

Inspectors General

In line with Anne Ternes

about Inspectors General in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The first Inspectors General-one for infantry and one for cavalry-were appointed by the French Army in 1668 and had the principal duties of reviewing the troops and reporting to the King. During the American (United States) Revolution, George Washington adopted the concept, charging his Inspector General with correcting all abuses and deficiencies within the Continental Army. But it was two centuries later before civilian Inspectors General were established to fight fraud, corruption, and waste in government. One of the core principles at the foundation of government is that public service is a public trust. An Inspector General is specifically charged with safeguarding that trust and does so by requiring that government is guided by high standards of integrity and honesty. The job of an Inspector General includes identifying, investigating, and deterring misconduct by government officials and employees.

Offices of Inspectors General

In line with Roger C. Viadero

about Inspectors General in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

An inspector general (IG) is an official of a federal agency who has been appointed by the president of the United States of America specifically to review and report on operations within his or her agency. The IG is the chief law enforcement official within that department or agency (except for the Department of Justice [DOJ]). The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) consists essentially of two divisions: criminal investigations and audit. Unlike an auditor in the private sector, the IG is responsible for reporting under the Chief Financial Officer's Act (Financial Statement Audits), which must meet the standards established by the American (United States) Institute of Certified Public Accountants and Generally Accepted Government Audit Standards. The idea behind the creation of the Offices of Inspectors General is not new; IGs fulfill roles similar to those played by internal auditors or integrity officers.

Illinois v. McArthur

Illinois v. McArthur

Illinois v. McArthur as a Leading U.S. Case

Illinois v. McArthur is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Illinois v. McArthur may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Illinois v. McArthur tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Illinois v. McArthur is also explained, together with the relevance of Illinois v. McArthur impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Illinois v. McArthur

531 U.S. 326 (2001)

International Association of Chiefs of Police

International Association of Chiefs of Police

International Association of Chiefs of Police

In line with Steven D. Cherry

about International Association of Chiefs of Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) is a not-for-profit private association providing a variety of law enforcement related services to federal, state, county, local, tribal, and other police agencies. In 2002, the IACP had close to 20,000 members. Although the majority were from North America, primarily the United States of America and Canada, police executives from more than 100 countries world are represented and many attend the annual conference traditionally held in the fall. The staff members of the IACP are not sworn law enforcement officers and cannot assist with criminal investigations or complaints about citizens or police officers, but assist police departments through information exchange through publications and a series of regional meetings around the world. The IACP was founded in 1893 by chiefs of police who met in Chicago, Illinois, where they created the National Union of Chiefs of Police of the United States of America and Canada.

Interstate Commerce Commission

Interstate Commerce Commission

Interstate Commerce Commission

In line with Gretchen Gross

about Interstate Commerce Commission in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was established in 1887 as an independent agency of the federal government with the responsibility for regulating railroads and water carriers. During the 108 years of its existence, the ICC's jurisdiction grew to include all surface forms of transportation including bus lines, railroads, trucking companies, water carriers, freight forwarders, and transportation brokers. In 1995, Congress abolished the ICC and transferred some of the functions and staff to the Department of Transportation. Regulatory responsibilities had been reduced by Congress during the previous 15 years. The workforce of more than 2,000 employees had been reduced to around 400 employees by 1995. The history of the ICC is important to the study of law enforcement because many precedent-setting court cases were brought by the ICC against transportation companies. Law enforcement professionals investigated irregularities in the practices of transportation companies.

Illinois v. Gates

Illinois v. Gates

Illinois v. Gates as a Leading U.S. Case

Illinois v. Gates is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Illinois v. Gates may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Illinois v. Gates tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Illinois v. Gates is also explained, together with the relevance of Illinois v. Gates impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Illinois v. Gates

462 U.S. 213 (1983)

Illinois v. Rodriguez

Illinois v. Rodriguez

Illinois v. Rodriguez as a Leading U.S. Case

Illinois v. Rodriguez is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Illinois v. Rodriguez may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Illinois v. Rodriguez tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Illinois v. Rodriguez is also explained, together with the relevance of Illinois v. Rodriguez impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Illinois v. Rodriguez

497 U.S. 177 (1990)

Interagency Cooperation

Interagency Cooperation

Interagency Cooperation

In line with Katherine Newbold

about Interagency Cooperation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Any discussion of interagency cooperation becomes a complex dissection of language, cultural ethos, jurisdictional authority, and political and operational issues. By the year 2000, law enforcement in the United States of America numbered more than 13,000 local police departments and more than 50 federal agencies with varying and overlapping mandates of intelligence gathering and security (McHugh, 2001). The intent of interagency cooperation is not a new one, with task forces operating as investigative tools since the 1970s and more prominently in the 1980s. Initial reports were mixed regarding task force effectiveness. State and local police agencies usually complained about the one-way nature of relations with federal authorities; more often, the complaints involved the actions of the FBI and the DEA. However, federal authorities did not fair any better in relations with one another. Each exerted control found in statutory mandates or through the control of informants and investigative intelligence.

Informants

Informants

Informants

In line with Enrico DeMaio

about Informants in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The law enforcement investigative process is a search for relevant and material facts for use in criminal prosecutions, and one of the most effective means of obtaining such information is through the use of an informant. An informant is an individual who has access to information about a past, ongoing, and/or future potential crime; who is motivated to bring this information to the attention of the proper authorities; and who is under the direct control of law enforcement. Informants are either walk-ins or approached by law enforcement, and a thorough background check is done on each to determine his or her potential access to information, motivations, and ability to be controlled. Informants provide information about all types of criminal activity, ranging from petty crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) to crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) that even threaten national and international security.

Issues Surrounding Use of Informants

In line with Adina Schwartz

about Informants in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

An informant is any person who supplies information to law enforcement officers about a crime that has occurred or that is planned. Because an informant's identity is usually kept secret outside the agency, officials usually refer colloquially to an informant as a confidential informant. Informants may include tipsters who volunteer information, informants who conduct surreptitious investigations, and cooperating defendants who testify or otherwise assist in convicting others in order to obtain reduced sentences. Although many federal law enforcement officers have come to rely on informants to build their cases, there are a number of legal issues surrounding the use of informants. Many of these issues are quite technical and depend on the specific facts of each case.