Drug Testing

Drug Testing

Drug Testing of Employees

In line with Heather R. Draper & Richard C. Li

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Drug use became a serious concern in the workplace during the 1980s. Companies involved in the oil, chemical, and nuclear industry as well as travel and transportation sectors, became areas of concern especially when accidents occurred causing deaths and immense financial ramifications. Drug testing has evolved and is now used for a variety of reasons. The main uses for drug testing include screening potential employees during the interview process, creating safety precautions for workers and the surrounding public, and monitoring drug use in the prison population. Today all federal employees, transportation employees, prisoners, and athletes competing on the national, Olympic, or professional level are subject to drug testing under current federal laws. In addition to these federal guidelines, each state has adopted its own guidelines involving drug testing in the workplace. Many private sector companies are also adopting drug testing into their bylaws in order to achieve a drug-free workplace.

Drug Testing of Police

In line with Kim Holland & Jeffry T. Walker

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Under the provisions of the Fourth Amendment, a search and seizure can only be made with a warrant, or without a warrant based on probable cause or under certain recognized exceptions. It was left to the courts, however, to determine such issues as whether intrusions beyond the body's surface were reasonable searches and whether individuals could expect to be free from bodily intrusions by government employers. Bodily intrusion, typically in the form of urine testing, is the primary method of drug testing employees. The level of reasonableness in these cases is typically addressed by balancing the employees' expectations of privacy against the agency's needs and interests in testing for the use of drugs. When it comes to law enforcement personnel, the issue of drug testing has an additional ethical dimension because police are generally held to a higher standard.

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