Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

In line with Brian S. MacNamara

about Hate Crimes in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) are defined as those criminal acts in which the perpetrator was motivated by bias against the victim based on the victim's religion, race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. Criminal acts motivated by hatred are not new: the Romans persecuted Christians, the Nazis committed crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) primarily against Jews but also against Gypsies and other religious or ethnic minorities, and acts against African Americans due solely to their skin color have been a common occurrence in the United States of America from colonial times and continue, to a far lesser extent, to the present. A resurgent interest in bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) began in the 1980s.

Law Enforcement Response to Hate Crimes

In line with Christopher D. Maxwell

about Hate Crimes in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) motivated by one's hatred toward another's race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or other innate characteristics are unilaterally condemned by Western societies as unjustified attacks. Although such crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) have existed for centuries, it was not until the 1980s that they gained recognition as a special type of criminal offense. Today, these crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) are labeled in federal and state statutes, and in local law enforcement policies, as hate- or bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). James Garofalo and Susan Martin identify three reasons that there is special focus on hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). First, because hate crime offenders target innate characteristics of a group, victims may have greater difficulty in coming to terms with their victimization. Second, some hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) appear to have contagious effects on the victim's community.

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