Policing

Policing

Problem-Oriented Policing

In line with Michael S. Scott

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Problem-oriented policing is a comprehensive framework for improving police service that was first articulated by law professor Herman Goldstein in 1979. Since then, many police agencies and police research institutions have sought to incorporate its principles and methods into the routine business of policing. Goldstein (2001) summarized the basic elements of problem-oriented policing as follows: Problem-oriented policing is an approach to policing in which discrete pieces of police business (each consisting of a cluster of similar incidents, whether crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) or acts of disorder, that the police are expected to handle) are subject to microscopic examination (drawing on the especially honed skills of crime analysts and the accumulated experience of operating field personnel) in hopes that what is freshly learned about each problem will lead to discovering a new and more effective strategy for dealing with it.

Railroad Policing

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Private railroad companies established their own police forces as early as 1847. The construction of railroads contributed to trespassing and thievery and the layouts of rail yards and storage material led to placing value goods distant from established communities, many of which lacked organized police forces. Even in cities that had begun to develop their own police forces after the 1850s and 1860s, railroads were concerned with the safety of passengers and their luggage. After the Civil War, hobos took to rail facilities, setting up squatter camps, traveling at no cost, and often taking whatever they could along the way, and although train robberies occurred throughout the nation, in the years after the 1880s until the turn of the century they became closely associated with banditry in the American (United States) West.

Theories of Policing

In line with Peter K. Manning

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

A discussion of theories of policing must first define police and policing, then distinguish types of policing, and then theorize about them. There are five types of policing, one of which is Anglo-American (United States) democratic policing, and this latter has some notable features. Theories of policing do not exist. There are, however, some metaphoric sketches of policing that make salient certain of their features and therefore can be used to describe police practice. There are at least five international or global types of policing: Islamic-traditional, authoritarian, democratic, Asian, and continental (Bayley, 1996). The Anglo-American (United States) democratic police are the focus of this entry. Although all nation-states have security police that are linked to the protection of sacred people, places, and buildings, and these police have, in theory, rather wide powers, democratic societies have sought, except in times of extreme crisis, to limit police powers.

Tribal Policing

In line with Dorothy H. Bracey

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Responsibility for policing Indian country has belonged to the federal government since the early 1800s. The agency carrying out that responsibility is the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Law Enforcement Services, located in the Department of the Interior, with officers who are federally trained and certified. In some circumstances, however, either state or tribal authorities police Indian lands. Regardless of who does the actual policing, questions of jurisdiction bedevil law enforcement in Indian country. Congressional actions and Court of last resort of the Country decisions made over many years have created complex arrangements that tend to expand federal power and diminish Native American (United States) sovereignty. The first of these is the Major crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) Act (1885), which, with supporting legislation, gives federal authorities jurisdiction over almost all felonies. This means that the small number of FBI agents near Indian lands have investigatory responsibility for all major crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary).

Women in Policing

In line with Aigi Resetnikova & Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Since the 1970s and 1980s, the roles of women in law enforcement in any particular country have generally mirrored the social attitudes and prevailing customs toward women in the larger society. Contrary to the United States of America, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and, to a lesser extent European and African nations, in many parts of the world women police are assigned to typically feminine jobs supervising or assisting women and children. This is particularly so in countries where women have not been accorded full social, economic, and political equality. These differences represent a major change from the early decades of the 20th century, when all countries that employed policewomen assigned them solely to working on cases involving women and children, with the exception of a few that assigned them to uniformed traffic control in major cities.

Women in State and Local Policing

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The official recognition of women in policing in the United States of America is usually associated with the appointment of Alice Stebbins Wells to the Los Angeles Police Department in 1910 as the first woman to be called a “policewoman.” Wells's employment set in motion a movement for policewomen that, despite setbacks, culminated in the late 1960s and early 1970s with women winning the right to equal employment in policing. However, women had served both officially and unofficially as matrons in prisons and jails, and as sheriffs' deputies, since the late 1880s. What made Wells different was not just that she was actually called a policewoman; her appointment was not only for the convenience of women caring for women, but was also part of a larger movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries both to reform policing and to increase the roles of women in public events and local government.

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