Tag Archives: CH

Child Welfare

Child Welfare

Child Welfare

In line with Mara Sullivan

about Child Welfare in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Child abuse and neglect are very serious issues faced by our country. In a current survey, half of all Americans think that child abuse and neglect are the most important public health issues-more important than other issues such as drug and alcohol abuse, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS. Over the past decade, the percentage of reported child maltreatment has risen consistently. Between the years of 1985 and 1995, there was a 49% increase in reported child maltreatment. However, many cases of child abuse and neglect go unreported. Three million referrals to Child Protective Services agencies were made in the year 2000 concerning the welfare of approximately 5 million children. Nationally, 61.7% were screened in, and 38.3% were screened out. Screened-in referrals were those that received investigations to determine if the allegations of maltreatment could be substantiated, and screened-out referrals were referred to other service agencies.

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act

In line with Dryden Watner

about Children's Online Privacy Protection Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In July 1998, the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA) was introduced by Senators Richard H. Bryan (R-NV) and John McCain (R-AZ). The act was proposed in response to a Federal Trade Commission (FTC) report that found that Web sites targeted at children were collecting personal information without any safeguards. The FTC was concerned that collection of personal information from children without parental consent would be an unfair and deceptive trade practice. COPPA was passed within months of its introduction and took effect on April 21, 2000. COPPA requires that commercial Web site operators who have knowledge that they are dealing with a child aged 12 or under, or who aim their content at children, obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting any personal information from a child. A child's personal information may include his or her full name, home address, e-mail address, telephone number, and Social Security number.

Christopher Commission

Christopher Commission

The Christopher Commission

In line with Camille Gibson

about Christopher Commission in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Christopher Commission was a special, independent investigative body created on April 1, 1991, by Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley to examine the structure and operations of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) with the assistance of the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office. The Commission's mission was to recommend reform to eliminate the excessive use of force by law enforcement, specifically by the LAPD. Its creation was a response to the George Holliday videotape of 27 California law enforcement officers, 23 of whom were from the LAPD, who were present at the savage beating of 25-year-old African American (United States) motorist Rodney King on Sunday morning, March 3, 1991. The videotape was the subject of numerous press reports both in the United States of America and throughout the world. The beating involved 56 baton strikes, plus numerous kicks to King's head and body by four LAPD officers-Sergeant Koon and officers Briseno, Powell, and Wind.

Chain of Custody

Chain of Custody

Chain of Custody

In line with Bryant Daniel Almeida

about Chain of Custody in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Chain of custody is a concept in the study and application of law that applies to the proper handling of evidence within a criminal proceeding. It refers to the ability to positively guarantee the identity, integrity, and chronological history of evidence from the point of acquisition through to examination and testimony. The sensitive nature of evidence, as used in a court of law to convict a person or persons of a crime, requires strict custodial procedures to be followed in a precise and careful manner to avoid later allegations of tampering or misconduct. These custodial procedures are carefully logged, documented, and attested via signature by every identifiable person at every stage of custody, thus creating a probable chain of custody that can be traced back to the point of acquisition.

Chambers v. Maroney

Chambers v. Maroney

Chambers v. Maroney as a Leading U.S. Case

Chambers v. Maroney is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Chambers v. Maroney may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Chambers v. Maroney tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Chambers v. Maroney is also explained, together with the relevance of Chambers v. Maroney impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Chambers v. Maroney

399 U.S. 42 (1969)

Child Pornography

Child Pornography

Child Pornography

In line with Jessica Saunders & Lisa A. Williams

about Child Pornography in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Child pornography is broadly defined as the visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a minor child. Child pornography can appear in a variety of visual media forms, such as photography film, pictures, magazines, videotapes, movie films, compact discs, zip disks, read-only memory (CDROM), and digital video technology (DVD). Child pornography can be transmitted through hand-to-hand contact, mail, computer bulletin board systems, USENET newsgroups, Internet Relay Chat channels, electronic mail, Internet clubs, and a surfeit of frequently changing Web sites. The precise definition of child pornography remains unclear, and lawmakers have had to depend on subjective community standards when developing policies banning such materials. Federal laws prohibiting child pornography expanded the definitions of child pornography in the past decade to protect both male and female children under 18 years of age. The requirement that pornography must be manufactured for commercial distribution to be prohibited by law was removed.

Chimel v. California

Chimel v. California

Chimel v. California as a Leading U.S. Case

Chimel v. California is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Chimel v. California may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Chimel v. California tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Chimel v. California is also explained, together with the relevance of Chimel v. California impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Chimel v. California

395 U.S. 752 (1969)

Child Abduction

Child Abduction

Child Abduction Investigations

In line with Mara Sullivan

about Child Abduction in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Parental abductions make up the majority of child abductions in the United States of America. More than 350,000 family abductions occur in the United States of America each year. Statistics from the United States Department of Justice also show that an estimated 58,200 children were abducted by non-family members in 1999. About 6% of these cases make up the most serious cases where the child is murdered, ransomed, or taken with the intent to keep. In more than 50% of child abductions where the child is not taken by a family member, the child is taken from the street, a car, or a park. In many of these cases, the child is killed or seriously injured a short time after being kidnapped.

Church Arson Prevention Act

Church Arson Prevention Act

Church Arson Prevention Act

In line with Nancy Egan

about Church Arson Prevention Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In early 1996, federal officials detected a pattern of increasing arson attacks on churches, particularly on African American (United States) churches in the southern portion of the country. In May of that year, a hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives brought together members of the legislature, law enforcement, and victim congregations. After reviewing testimony and supporting evidence, President William J. Clinton called for the formation of the National Church Arson Task Force (NCATF). In July, just six weeks after the committee hearing, a bill to give the NCATF greater powers passed quickly and unanimously through Congress and was signed into law by President Clinton as the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996.

Child

Child

Child Molestation

In line with Lisa A. Williams

about Child in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Child molestation is commonly defined as inappropriate sexual conduct with a child by an adult or someone substantially older than the child. In 2001, there were more than 85,000 substantiated cases of child sexual abuse reported to law enforcement agencies and Child Protective Services (CPS). Moreover, according to research conducted by the United States Department of Justice (Snyder, 2000), 34% of all sexual assaults reported to law enforcement involve children younger than 12, and more than 14% involve children younger than 6 years of age. These findings include only the number of cases that are reported to authorities, not how many cases will ultimately be prosecuted nor the number of cases that actually occur. Difficulties associated with prosecuting child molestation cases often occur in the reporting and investigation of these types of offenses.