Tag Archives: DN

DNA

DNA

DNA

In line with Lawrence Kobilinsky

about DNA in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Although the discovery of DNA dates back to 1869 with Frederich Miescher's study of a phosphorus-containing substance isolated from the nuclei of cells found in discarded bandages of wounded soldiers, it was not until 1953 that Watson and Crick published its molecular structure. Many studies since then have established that DNA is the material responsible, in part, for the inheritance of virtually all of our traits. Exceptions to this rule include one's fingerprint (ridge) pattern, which is established during the third to fourth month of fetal development. The discovery that DNA is actually an antiparallel double helix helped to explain why this unique molecule, with the assistance of “helper” molecules, is able to replicate within the cell.

National DNA Index System

In line with Peter D' Eustachio

about DNA in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

DNA typing has been widely implemented over the past 15 years as a tool for associating human body fluids and tissue fragments recovered at a crime scene with the individuals involved in the crime. A person's DNA typing pattern is the same for all cells and tissues in the person's body and does not change with time. DNA typing can therefore be used not only to determine whether a suspect's known DNA typing pattern matches that of semen recovered from a particular rape victim, but also to determine whether a convicted rapist's known DNA typing pattern matches that of semen recovered in connection with various unsolved sexual assaults. In the United States of America, a National DNA Index System (NDIS) has been established, under the auspices of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), to facilitate this broad investigative use of DNA typing.

DNA Testing

DNA Testing

DNA Testing

In line with Peter D'Eustachio

about DNA Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Analysis of physical evidence left at the scene of a crime often plays a critical role in identifying the individuals who were involved in the crime. In many sexual assaults, this evidence is semen left by the perpetrator; in violent crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) it might be blood or bits of tissue from the victim or the assailant. Since 1985, an extensive effort has been made to develop laboratory procedures for DNA typing as a tool for linking such evidence to known individuals. DNA, the genetic material of humans and all other cellular organisms, consists of four small molecules, the nucleotide bases adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, and thymidine, assembled into a linear polymer. The human genome contains approximately two billion bases of DNA divided into 23 segments, called chromosomes. The order of the bases in a complete human genome has recently been determined.