Tag Archives: DR

Drug Testing

Drug Testing

Drug Testing of Employees

In line with Heather R. Draper & Richard C. Li

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Drug use became a serious concern in the workplace during the 1980s. Companies involved in the oil, chemical, and nuclear industry as well as travel and transportation sectors, became areas of concern especially when accidents occurred causing deaths and immense financial ramifications. Drug testing has evolved and is now used for a variety of reasons. The main uses for drug testing include screening potential employees during the interview process, creating safety precautions for workers and the surrounding public, and monitoring drug use in the prison population. Today all federal employees, transportation employees, prisoners, and athletes competing on the national, Olympic, or professional level are subject to drug testing under current federal laws. In addition to these federal guidelines, each state has adopted its own guidelines involving drug testing in the workplace. Many private sector companies are also adopting drug testing into their bylaws in order to achieve a drug-free workplace.

Drug Testing of Police

In line with Kim Holland & Jeffry T. Walker

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Under the provisions of the Fourth Amendment, a search and seizure can only be made with a warrant, or without a warrant based on probable cause or under certain recognized exceptions. It was left to the courts, however, to determine such issues as whether intrusions beyond the body's surface were reasonable searches and whether individuals could expect to be free from bodily intrusions by government employers. Bodily intrusion, typically in the form of urine testing, is the primary method of drug testing employees. The level of reasonableness in these cases is typically addressed by balancing the employees' expectations of privacy against the agency's needs and interests in testing for the use of drugs. When it comes to law enforcement personnel, the issue of drug testing has an additional ethical dimension because police are generally held to a higher standard.

Drug Enforcement

Drug Enforcement

Drug Enforcement

In line with Tammy S. Garland

about Drug Enforcement in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In February 2002, President George W. Bush unveiled a new campaign to target the drug problem within the United States of America. The strategy emphasized supply reduction through aggressive drug enforcement and interdiction programs while simultaneously emphasizing demand reduction through effective drug education, prevention, and treatment programs. Under this plan, the federal government allocated almost $2 billion to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to maintain the War on Drugs. This trend in drug enforcement is not innovative, but is simply a continuation of past policies. Since the establishment of federal agencies designed to combat the use, manufacture, and sale of illegal drugs, the federal government has increasingly appropriated funding to combat the illicit drug trade. In addition, the ever-changing policies have evolved to encompass a number of agencies working simultaneously to eliminate the flow of illicit drugs throughout the country.

Drug Enforcement in the United States

In line with Michael D. Lyman

about Drug Enforcement in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The enforcement of drug laws represents one of the major components of American (United States) law enforcement. Although drug enforcement has been a function of law enforcement since the early part of the 20th century, it gained considerable momentum in the mid-1970s when drug abuse began to soar and federal money for training, education, and equipment was made available to police agencies to address the problem. Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies share responsibility for most of the nation's drug enforcement efforts. When these entities combine their efforts, they primarily deal with the supply side of the nation's drug abuse problem. In 1973, the federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed to restrict the supply of controlled substances through coordination with state and local agencies. Today, the DEA remains the lead federal drug enforcement agency and has nearly 3,000 agents.

Drunk Driving

Drunk Driving

Drunk Driving Enforcement

In line with Michelle R. Hecht

about Drunk Driving in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Driving while impaired is one of the nation's most frequently committed violent crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary), and Americans rank drunk driving as their number one highway safety concern. Each year, 42,000 people die in motor vehicle crashes, and more than 16,000 of these fatalities are alcohol or drug related. However, fatalities and injuries involving impaired driving, also known as drunk and drugged driving, are largely preventable. Although the definition of impaired driving includes drug-induced impairment, most of the research and arrest data focus on impairment caused by alcohol. Since 1990, alcohol-related fatalities have been reduced by 25%, from 22,084 in 1990 to 16,653 in 2000. However, in more recent years, the rate of such incidents has been slowly creeping up again.

Mothers against Drunk Driving

In line with Kimberly D. Hassell

about Drunk Driving in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is the largest crime victims' assistance organization in the world with more than 3 million members and supporters. Members of this nonprofit organization are committed to stopping drunk driving, to preventing underage drinking, and to supporting victims of these crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) and their families. The organization's slogan is “Voice of the Victim,” with its primary focus on assisting victims through the justice process. MADD members have been instrumental in the passage of hundreds of federal and state anti-drunk driving laws, with the most recognized being the 1984 federal law requiring all states to increase the legal drinking age to 21. Since MADD's inception, alcoholrelated traffic fatalities have declined dramatically. Studies have documented that the 21 minimum drinking age law has saved an average of 1,000 young lives each year since its passage.

Drug Legislation

Drug Legislation

Drug Policy and Legislation

In line with Christine Ivie Edge

about Drug Legislation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Although much of the public debate surrounding drug policy occurs at the federal level, many important decisions are made at the state and local levels. Local and state narcotics control within the United States of America emerged in the latter part of the 1800s, originating in those communities directly threatened by drugs such as morphine, opium, and cocaine. A current trend in drug policy involves a growing shift of responsibility from the federal level to the state and local levels. This is plainly seen in the area of enforcement where local police make the preponderance of arrests. Increasingly, states and localities are also assuming larger roles in the funding and implementation of social programs used to combat drug abuse. Both federal and state drug laws typically involve the use of mandatory sentencing. On the state level, laws can vary in severity and change from time to time.

Drug Trafficking

Drug Trafficking

Drug Trafficking

In line with Ric Curtis

about Drug Trafficking in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Drug traffickers are typically depicted in Hollywood movies as larger-than-life people whose elaborate schemes move enormous amounts of drugs across international borders. Despite, and sometimes because of, governmental interventions, these kinds of drug traffickers do exist, but from a law enforcement perspective, drug trafficking can refer to almost any act that facilitates the distribution of an illegal substance, from the biggest drug cartels to the smallest “mule” to the lowliest street-level seller. Our knowledge about upper-level traffickers has been largely confined to first-person accounts written by retired traffickers and descriptions provided by law enforcement agencies such as the Drug Enforcement Administration ( ) or the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ( ). Because of the difficulty of gaining access to upper-level drug traffickers, there has been little academic research on this topic that does not rely upon “official” data sources.

Drug Prevention

Drug Prevention

Drug Prevention Education

In line with Mangai Natarajan

about Drug Prevention in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Most drug prevention education in America is geared to young people. This is the group most likely to experiment with drugs under the influence of peers. According to Monitoring the Future , a national survey that measures drug use among young people each year, 2002 showed the first significant drop in drug use among youth in nearly a decade, with reductions noted among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders. Levels of use for some drugs are now lower than they have been for almost 30 years. Such declines are unusual, and their underlying causes remain unclear. The same survey does show, however, that some drug use among 12th graders, for example, has remained above 40% since 1996, up from 29.4% in 1991. These statistics bring into question whether the comprehensive measures being taken to reduce youth drug use, including drug prevention education programs, are having the desired effect.

Drug Courier

Drug Courier

Drug Courier Analysis or Profiling

In line with Christine Ivie Edge

about Drug Courier in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In the early 1970s, the drug courier profile emerged as a law enforcement tool used to combat the influx of drugs into the United States of America. A drug courier profile consists of a list of characteristics assumed typical of individuals carrying illicit drugs. Commonly used by law enforcement officials to distinguish drug traffickers from regular citizens, an individ-ual's exhibition of multiple profile traits triggers the suspicion of expert narcotics officers. Such profiles have been used extensively by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) at airports to counter the trafficking of illegal drugs into source cities, such as Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Los Angeles, and Bigg Apple (New York). Successful DEA use of the profiles in identifying drug couriers at airports prompted state and local law enforcement to use similar profiles. Drug trafficking on the country's highways has been a significant method of drug distribution.

Drug Enforcement Administration

Drug Enforcement Administration

Drug Enforcement Administration

In line with George Feeney

about Drug Enforcement Administration in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Federal narcotic law enforcement began in 1915, within a year of passage of the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, section 10 of which authorized the commissioner of internal revenue, with the approval of the secretary of the treasury, to appoint as many agents and messengers in the field and in the Bureau of Internal Revenue as may be necessary to enforce provisions of this act. In subsequent years, additional federal laws were passed to reflect societal and political responses to the problems of drug use and drug trafficking. The federal enforcement agency responsible for enforcing federal narcotics laws changed, transferred, merged, and shared concurrent jurisdiction with other federal agencies. Over the years, these changes resulted in the creation of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), which has grown to become one of the largest of the federal law enforcement agencies.

Draper v. United States

Draper v. United States

Draper v. United States as a Leading U.S. Case

Draper v. United States is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Draper v. United States may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Draper v. United States tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Draper v. United States is also explained, together with the relevance of Draper v. United States impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Draper v. United States

358 U.S. 307 (1959)