Tag Archives: FO

Forensic Art

Forensic Art

Forensic Art

In line with Diane T. Shkutzko-Penola

about Forensic Art in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Forensic art can be considered a combination of art and science. Art is the subjective element, applying human talent, knowledge, and discretion. The artist uses scientific principles of anatomy and physiology, as well as documented research findings, to create a product that aids the legal process. The information is expressed visually rather than verbally. The forensic artist can turn a victim's description into a picture to be circulated in the media or an unidentified body into an image recognizable by family members. The finished product may be a representation of a victim or an offender. Forensic art is of particular importance in the identification process-missing persons, suspects in crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) against persons, and unknown human remains. The human face is the most frequently depicted focus. The need for the recording of facial features was recognized by Dr. Alphonse Bertillon in the late 1800s.

Food and Drug Administration

Food and Drug Administration

Food and Drug Administration

In line with Lorine Swainston Goodwin

about Food and Drug Administration in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services with broad regulatory, investigatory, and educative duties intended to protect the health and safety of American (United States) consumers. It administers the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 and certain related laws. Its mission was updated by the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 and its jurisdiction is under continuous definition and expansion. In the wake of the September 11, 2001, and subsequent terrorist attacks, Congress has enhanced the FDA's resources by allocating funds to hire additional employees to ensure the safety of both domestically manufactured and imported products. The FDA embodies eight centers, each with specific duties: the Centers of Biologic Evaluation and Research, Devices and Radiological Health, Drug Evaluation and Research, Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Veterinary Medicine, Toxicological Research, and Offices of the Commissioner and of Regulatory Affairs.

Forensic Accounting

Forensic Accounting

Forensic Accounting

In line with Joseph W. Koletar

about Forensic Accounting in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Forensic accounting has historically referred solely to the application of accounting skills, tests, and principles to financial books and records when litigation is anticipated. Since the 1970s, though, thousands of accountants, auditors, and investigators have become involved in such undertakings and, accordingly, the use of the term has broadened. Today, forensic accounting has expanded to involve criminal investigations, regulatory examinations, internal corporate inquiries, pre- or post-purchase price disputes, preacquisition due diligence, licensing disputes, vendor and purchasing integrity programs, bankruptcy investigations, protection of intellectual property, monitoring of joint venture activities, construction or project analysis, or various forms of controls and compliance assessment. At the same time that the term forensic accounting has broadened, so, too, have the types of professionals engaged in these activities.

Foster v. California

Foster v. California

Foster v. California as a Leading U.S. Case

Foster v. California is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Foster v. California may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Foster v. California tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Foster v. California is also explained, together with the relevance of Foster v. California impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Foster v. California

394 U.S. 440 (1969)

Forensic Science

Forensic Science

Forensic Science

In line with Lawrence Kobilinsky

about Forensic Science in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Forensic science is a unique discipline in which the principles and techniques of the basic sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics) are used to analyze evidence, thereby retrieving information to help solve problems related to civil and criminal law (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia here). Forensic scientists may be employed by a public agency, such as a law enforcement department or a medical examiner's office, or they may work for private commercial laboratories. Criminalists are forensic scientists who deal almost exclusively with criminal matters, working cooperatively with law enforcement personnel, pathologists, and other forensic specialists as well as with prosecutors and defense attorneys. They use the scientific method to develop factual information that is presented in a written report and in oral testimony for jurors so that they can make an informed decision as to the guilt or innocence of a defendant.

Forest

Forest

Forest Service, Law Enforcement and Investigations

In line with Katherine B. Killoran

about Forest in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The motto of the Forest Service (FS), “Caring for the Land and Serving the People,” reflects its mission to protect, manage, and promote use-timbering, grazing, and mining, as well as recreational-of more than 175 national forest units. Under the Department of Agriculture, the FS is responsible for stewardship of natural resources on more than 192 million acres, 8.3% of America's land area. The Law Enforcement and Investigations (LEI) program is responsible for public safety and protecting the natural resources, employees, and property on lands under the jurisdiction of the FS. LEI investigates violations of, and enforces federal laws and regulations that relate to, the National Forest System (NFS). LEI also works to prevent violations through public education programs and cooperates with other federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations. Internal investigation is also part of its responsibilities.