Tag Archives: HA

Hafer v. Melo

Hafer v. Melo

Hafer v. Melo as a Leading U.S. Case

Hafer v. Melo is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Hafer v. Melo may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Hafer v. Melo tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Hafer v. Melo is also explained, together with the relevance of Hafer v. Melo impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Hafer v. Melo

502 U.S. 21 (1991)

Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes

In line with Brian S. MacNamara

about Hate Crimes in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) are defined as those criminal acts in which the perpetrator was motivated by bias against the victim based on the victim's religion, race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. Criminal acts motivated by hatred are not new: the Romans persecuted Christians, the Nazis committed crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) primarily against Jews but also against Gypsies and other religious or ethnic minorities, and acts against African Americans due solely to their skin color have been a common occurrence in the United States of America from colonial times and continue, to a far lesser extent, to the present. A resurgent interest in bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) began in the 1980s.

Law Enforcement Response to Hate Crimes

In line with Christopher D. Maxwell

about Hate Crimes in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) motivated by one's hatred toward another's race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or other innate characteristics are unilaterally condemned by Western societies as unjustified attacks. Although such crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) have existed for centuries, it was not until the 1980s that they gained recognition as a special type of criminal offense. Today, these crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) are labeled in federal and state statutes, and in local law enforcement policies, as hate- or bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). James Garofalo and Susan Martin identify three reasons that there is special focus on hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). First, because hate crime offenders target innate characteristics of a group, victims may have greater difficulty in coming to terms with their victimization. Second, some hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) appear to have contagious effects on the victim's community.

Hate Crimes Statistics Act

Hate Crimes Statistics Act

Hate Crimes Statistics Act

In line with Nickie Phillips

about Hate Crimes Statistics Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Hate crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) Statistics Act (HCSA) became law in 1990 in response to a number of high-profile bias-motivated crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) that occurred during the 1980s. These crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) became the basis of claims by a variety of interest groups that such actions had reached epidemic proportions and that the crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) did not receive sufficient attention from law enforcement agencies. To support this view and in an effort to combat bias-motivated incidents, various groups, including the Anti-Defamation League, the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force/Anti-Violence Project, and the Southern Poverty Law Center, began to collect and disseminate data on such incidents. The activities of these groups led congressional leaders to pass federal legislation to address the matter. The resulting HCSA was introduced in 1985 and signed into law by President George H. W. Bush in 1990.

Harrison Act

Harrison Act

Harrison Act

In line with Barry Spunt

about Harrison Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Harrison Act, passed by Congress in 1914, was the first federal law in the United States of America to criminalize the nonmedical use of drugs. The chief proponent of the measure was Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, a major force in American (United States) politics at the time, who was closely identified with traditionalism, particularly with fundamentalist Christianity. He urged that the law be promptly passed to fulfill United States obligations under international treaties aimed primarily at solving the opium problems of the Far East, especially China. The law was sponsored by Representative Francis Burton Harrison (D-NY). The Harrison Act applied only to opium; morphine and its various derivatives, such as heroin; and the derivatives of the coca leaf, such as cocaine. It was basically a revenue code designed to exercise some measure of public control over these drugs.

Hampton v. United States

Hampton v. United States

Hampton v. United States as a Leading U.S. Case

Hampton v. United States is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Hampton v. United States may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Hampton v. United States tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Hampton v. United States is also explained, together with the relevance of Hampton v. United States impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Hampton v. United States

425 U.S. 484 (1976)