Tag Archives: HO

Hostage

Hostage

Hostage Negotiations

In line with Robert Louden

about Hostage in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Hostage taking is an ancient form of criminal activity, and it was even an accepted tool of diplomacy in certain societies. Although such acts have a long history, they are still employed today, as demonstrated in Iraq in 2004, where various factions have seized military and civilian personnel from several countries as hostages in hostilities between those factions and United States forces. Hostage taking is defined by the United Nations as “the seizing or detaining and threatening to kill, injure, or continue to detain another person to compel a third party to do or abstain from doing any act as a condition for the release of the hostage.” Prior to 1973, hostage negotiation did not exist as a function in United States

Homicide

Homicide

Homicide Investigation

In line with Vernon J. Geberth

about Homicide in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Homicide investigation is a profound duty with awesome responsibilities. The homicide investigator becomes keenly aware of the reality of death and the impact it has on both society and the surviving family. It requires the investigator to develop an understanding of the dynamics of human behavior, as well as the essential details of professional investigation. The purpose of homicide investigation is to bring justice to the deceased and his or her surviving family, and also to uphold society's interest in apprehending those who commit such acts. This mission is accomplished by conducting a professional and intelligent investigation that results in the identification and apprehension of the killer and a successful prosecution.

Homicide Trends in the United States

In line with Alfred Blumstein

about Homicide in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Homicide rates in the United States of America had been declining steadily since they reached a peak in 1991-1993. As each report came out, the nation-and particularly the mayors and police chiefs-celebrated the steady decline. By 2000, the rates had reached their lowest level in more than 30 years. For most of that period, United States homicide rates oscillated between about 8 and 10 homicides per 100,000 population, a rate that is about five times that of most industrial countries. That rate was 8 in 1985 and climbed about 25% to a value of 10 by 1991, has been declining steadily since 1993, and by 2000 was under 6 per 100,000. These results are shown in Figure 2 , along with the graph for robbery (scaled down by a factor of 25), which follows the homicide rate rather closely.

Housing Police

Housing Police

Housing Police

In line with Gretchen Gross

about Housing Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Housing police are police hired specifically to provide law enforcement services in public housing developments. The local Housing Authority (HA) that manages the public housing units may establish its own Housing Police Department, or the HA may choose to work with the local police department. The federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) provides funding and guidance for police services in public housing, but the authorization to establish a police department with full police powers comes from the state legislature. In order to improve the delivery of law enforcement in public housing, HUD commissioned Carroll Buracker and Associates to study policing in six HAs. Their report, Policing in Public Housing , provides recommendations for improvement and a model contract for arranging supplemental police coverage from the local police department. Recent changes in housing police departments can be attributed to the Buracker study and subsequent management directives from HUD.

Horton v. California

Horton v. California

Horton v. California as a Leading U.S. Case

Horton v. California is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Horton v. California may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Horton v. California tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Horton v. California is also explained, together with the relevance of Horton v. California impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Horton v. California

496 U.S. 128 (1990)

Hot Spots

Hot Spots

Hot Spots

In line with James L. LeBeau

about Hot Spots in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

A hot spot is a place or geographic location that generates large volumes or high intensities of repeated and predictable crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) or calls for police services. The essence of a hot spot pertains to examining crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary), calls, or problems within a framework defined by their spatial and temporal dimensions. The former reveals that crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary), calls, or problems are distributed randomly, uniformly, or clustered across space, whereas the latter reveals that the timing of such events is random, cyclical (occurring at particular times), or incessant (occurring all the time). Research during the 1970s seriously questioned the effectiveness and wisdom of the widespread practice of police preventive patrol. Therefore, improving the management and efficacy of the patrol function was sought through the use of novel tactics and programs.