Tag Archives: IN

Indianapolis v. Edmond

Indianapolis v. Edmond

Indianapolis v. Edmond as a Leading U.S. Case

Indianapolis v. Edmond is one of the leading United States Supreme Court decisions impacting law enforcement in the United States, and, in this regards, Indianapolis v. Edmond may be a case reference for attorneys and police officers. As a leading case, this entry about Indianapolis v. Edmond tries to include facts, relevant legal issues, and the Court's decision and reasoning. The significance of Indianapolis v. Edmond is also explained, together with the relevance of Indianapolis v. Edmond impact on citizens and law enforcement.

Citation of Indianapolis v. Edmond

531 U.S. 32 (2000)

Internal Affairs

Internal Affairs

Internal Affairs

In line with Vincent E. Henry

about Internal Affairs in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Internal affairs is a generic term used in policing and law enforcement to refer to the organizational unit or function devoted to investigating (and often preventing) corruption, criminal behavior, and various forms of misconduct related to the performance of the official duties of sworn and civilian members of the agency. The particular organizational structures, policies, and practices that characterize the internal affairs function vary widely as a reflection of the great diversity found across the landscape of American (United States) law enforcement. In some agencies, the internal affairs function focuses narrowly upon serious criminal behavior, whereas in others, it includes investigating a broader range of complaints that may include civilian complaints such as discourtesy, abuse of authority, and excessive force. In some law enforcement entities, it may also include the investigation of internal disciplinary matters and administrative violations.

International Police Cooperation

International Police Cooperation

International Police Cooperation

In line with Michael Sadykiewicz

about International Police Cooperation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police cooperation has only become more important in the era of globalization and the corresponding environment in which terrorism and other kinds of serious transnational crime can flow easily across borders. Close international cooperation among police services is essential to prevent and combat these rising worldwide dangers. There are many channels of international police cooperation. It can take place on the basis of agreements between countries, whether bilateral or multilateral. Cooperation can also take the form of adherence to agreements made by United Nations (U.N.) member countries based on resolutions, conventions, protocols, and other legal documents passed by respective bodies of the U.N. Another form of cooperation comes as a result of membership in subregional, regional, or global international police organizations; or from international voluntary police associations. The principal targets of international police cooperation are serious transnational crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary).

Internal Revenue Service

Internal Revenue Service

Criminal Investigation Division of the Internal Revenue Service

In line with David A. Hohn

about Internal Revenue Service in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed in 1913, gave Congress the power to levy and collect tax. The Bureau of Internal Revenue, under the Department of the Treasury, was the agency responsible for collecting taxes on individuals and corporations. In 1919 there were widespread accusations of fraudulent tax reporting. Daniel C. Roper, then the commissioner of the Bureau of Internal Revenue, was a former first assistant postmaster general; Roper requested the secretary of the treasury and the postmaster general to assign six experienced postal inspectors to the Bureau of Internal Revenue to investigate fraudulent income returns. These inspectors formed a new unit called the Special Intelligence Unit, with Elmer L. Irey as its first chief. In 1952 the Bureau of Internal Revenue reorganized and was renamed the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

Inspection Service of the Internal Revenue Service

In line with Sandra Shoiock Roff

about Internal Revenue Service in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was created in 1862, during the presidency of Abraham Lincoln. To help pay the cost of the Civil War, one of its first charges was to enact an income tax. The income tax was repealed in 1872 and although this tax was revived for a year in 1894, it was not until 1913 that the Sixteenth Amendment was ratified giving Congress the power to institute an income tax.

International Police Association

International Police Association

International Police Association

In line with Michael Sadykiewicz

about International Police Association in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The International Police Association (IPA), with more than 300,000 members in 58 countries, is the largest independent police organization in the world. It was founded by British police Sergeant Arthur Troop (1914-2000), on January 1, 1950. Its motto, in Esperanto, is “Servo per Amikeco” (Service Through Friendship). IPA is an independent body made up of members of the police service, both those on active duty and retired, and without distinction as to rank, sex, race, color, language, or religion. Its purpose is to create bonds of friendship and to promote international cooperation. The Association is committed to the principles set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as adopted by the United Nations in 1948. The aims of the IPA include developing cultural relationships among its members, broadening their general knowledge, and exchanging professional experiences.

International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators

International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators

International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators

In line with William J. Schmitz

about International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA) is an organization of college and university security directors and police chiefs serving both public and private institutions. Its history dates to November 6, 1958, when 11 security directors came together at Arizona State University to discuss mutual job problems and frustrations. This small conference illustrated a need for security directors across the United States of America to network with one another and to formulate a clearinghouse to share their experiences and concerns. Job problems then were very similar to current times. They included, but were not limited to, the use of narcotics on campus, parking problems on campus, cooperation with other law enforcement agencies, search and seizure, arrest, civil defense, key systems, crowd control, and organization and management of university police departments.

Intelligence

Intelligence

Intelligence and Security Command, Department of the Army, Department of Defense

In line with Marvie Brooks

about Intelligence in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The impetus for the Intelligence and Security Command, Department of the Army, Department of Defense (INSCOM) originated in 1975 with the Army's Intelligence Organization and Stationing Study's recommendation that intelligence, counter-intelligence, and electronic warfare operations at echelon above corps level be combined into one organization. Based on this recommendation, the former United States Army Security Agency was renamed INSCOM on January 1, 1977, and established its headquarters near the Pentagon, in Washington, D.C. INSCOM absorbed the Army Security Agency, the United States Army Intelligence Agency, three military intelligence (MI) groups (66 MI in Germany, the 470 MI in Panama, and the 500 MI in Japan), and a fourth group, the 501st MI, that had been activated in Korea. Today INSCOM serves as the mechanism for the implementation of multidiscipline intelligence and security operations at echelon above corps level.

Internet Fraud Complaint Center

Internet Fraud Complaint Center

Internet Fraud Complaint Center

In line with Jacqueline D. Mege

about Internet Fraud Complaint Center in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Internet Fraud Complaint Center (IFCC) was created in May 2000 as a partnership between the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C). The IFCC is a federally funded, not-for-profit organization, based in Morgantown, West Virginia. At its inception the IFCC staff consisted of 12 FBI agents and 25 employees of the NW3C, with an annual budget of $12 million. In February 2002, the IFCC was the recipient of the Excellence in Government Award, which is an award given to federal government agencies that have demonstrated innovative electronic government initiatives. The IFCC's primary function is to act as a clearinghouse for Internet fraud complaints filed by victims. Because a victim of Internet fraud often does not know where to file a complaint, the IFCC centralizes this function and disseminates complaints to the proper jurisdictional authority.

International Criminal Justice Mechanisms

International Criminal Justice Mechanisms

International Criminal Justice Mechanisms (State Participation in Investigations and Prosecutions)

In line with Samuel Akorimo

about International Criminal Justice Mechanisms in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Trials for war crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) have a long history, dating back to and probably before the time of the ancient Greeks. Some trials considered to be international in character are traced back to the 15th and 17th centuries. The International Military Tribunals (IMTs) formed after World War II, ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts, and the International Criminal Court (ICC) are four categories of institutions that have been involved in the administration of international criminal justice and have made significant contributions at various stages of their evolution. Since IMTs began, there has been marked evolution of the framework for the role of states in investigations and prosecutions, characterized by a remarkable increase in the role of states. In the IMTs, the victorious states played a primary and leading role in the processes. While the ad hoc tribunals exercise independent jurisdictions, they require the cooperation and assistance of states.

Inspectors General

Inspectors General

Inspectors General

In line with Anne Ternes

about Inspectors General in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The first Inspectors General-one for infantry and one for cavalry-were appointed by the French Army in 1668 and had the principal duties of reviewing the troops and reporting to the King. During the American (United States) Revolution, George Washington adopted the concept, charging his Inspector General with correcting all abuses and deficiencies within the Continental Army. But it was two centuries later before civilian Inspectors General were established to fight fraud, corruption, and waste in government. One of the core principles at the foundation of government is that public service is a public trust. An Inspector General is specifically charged with safeguarding that trust and does so by requiring that government is guided by high standards of integrity and honesty. The job of an Inspector General includes identifying, investigating, and deterring misconduct by government officials and employees.

Offices of Inspectors General

In line with Roger C. Viadero

about Inspectors General in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

An inspector general (IG) is an official of a federal agency who has been appointed by the president of the United States of America specifically to review and report on operations within his or her agency. The IG is the chief law enforcement official within that department or agency (except for the Department of Justice [DOJ]). The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) consists essentially of two divisions: criminal investigations and audit. Unlike an auditor in the private sector, the IG is responsible for reporting under the Chief Financial Officer's Act (Financial Statement Audits), which must meet the standards established by the American (United States) Institute of Certified Public Accountants and Generally Accepted Government Audit Standards. The idea behind the creation of the Offices of Inspectors General is not new; IGs fulfill roles similar to those played by internal auditors or integrity officers.