Tag Archives: Law Enforcement Agency

Women

Women

Women in Federal Agency Law Enforcement

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Women in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The modern history of women special agents in federal law enforcement agencies began in 1971, when President Richard M. Nixon issued Executive Order No. 11478. The order, Equal Employment Opportunity in the Federal Government, prohibited discrimination in employment at the federal level because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicap, or age and effectively ended the ban on employing women in the title of special agent. It also opened up to women positions in GS-1811 status, or criminal investigative positions, from which they had previously been barred. Agencies that hired women that same year included the Secret Service and the Postal Inspection Service. Others, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), did not implement this change until 1972.

Women in Federal Law Enforcement

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Women in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Women in Federal Law Enforcement (WIFLE) began in 1978 as the Interagency Committee on Women in Federal Law Enforcement (ICWIFLE), a task forced formed by the United States Office of Personnel Management to study the reasons women were not becoming or remaining federal law enforcement officers. In 1983 its sponsorship was transferred to the Department of Justice and the Department of the Treasury, with each agency represented by a cochair. In June 1999, leaders of the group decided to achieve greater independence by incorporating outside the interagency committee and changed the group's name to Women in Federal Law Enforcement.

Law Enforcement Agencies

Law Enforcement Agencies

Special Jurisdiction Law Enforcement Agencies

In line with Peter Horne

about Law Enforcement Agencies in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police protection is the function of enforcing the law, preserving order, and apprehending those who violate the law, whether these activities are performed by a city police department, a county sher-iff's department, or a state police or federal law enforcement agency. In the United States of America, both federalism and tradition have resulted in a fragmented police structure at three levels of government: federal, state, and local. This fragmentation is compounded by the separation of local government into two levels: municipal and county. Discounting federal law enforcement agencies, the most recent, comprehensive census of state and local law enforcement agencies identified 17,784 full-time police agencies as of June 2000. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), which conducted this study, identified those agencies employing at least one full-time sworn officer with general police arrest powers.

Army Criminal Investigation

Army Criminal Investigation

Criminal Investigation Command, Department of the Army, Department of Defense

In line with Robyn Diehl Lacks & Brian Kessler Lacks

about Army Criminal Investigation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) houses all major United States Army investigative operations. The Criminal Investigation Command (CID) is the major component of the USACIDC and is its primary criminal investigative organization. The creation of USACIDC and CID can be traced back to the mid-1800s with the creation of the Continental Army and the creation of the Office of the Provost Marshal in 1776, followed two years later by the organization of the Provost Corp. This was followed by passage of the Enrollment Act in March 1863, the first draft law, which forced Secretary of War Edwin Stanton to create a police force to enforce the unpopular law and to arrest those who attempted to desert. During the Civil War the newly created Army Police Force only investigated criminal acts based on the Enrollment Act.

Criminal Investigation Division of the Environmental Protection Agency

In line with Lisa Thomas Briggs

about Army Criminal Investigation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The primary function of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to implement and enforce pollution control laws enacted by Congress. A staff of approximately 150 special field agents assigned to the EPA's Criminal Investigation Division (CID) is responsible for pursuing violators of these laws. CID is essentially the law enforcement and investigative branch of the EPA. Although environmental crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) are defined broadly, they have in common that they endanger human, animal, or plant life through misuse of the overall environment, whether through industrial waste, pollution, or other harmful acts that threaten the land, air, or water supply. About half of all EPA investigations involve violations of toxic waste transportation laws and illegal dumping of hazardous materials. In addition to criminal prosecutions, the EPA also relies on administrative and civil sanctions to curtail violations of federal environmental laws.

Interagency Cooperation

Interagency Cooperation

Interagency Cooperation

In line with Katherine Newbold

about Interagency Cooperation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Any discussion of interagency cooperation becomes a complex dissection of language, cultural ethos, jurisdictional authority, and political and operational issues. By the year 2000, law enforcement in the United States of America numbered more than 13,000 local police departments and more than 50 federal agencies with varying and overlapping mandates of intelligence gathering and security (McHugh, 2001). The intent of interagency cooperation is not a new one, with task forces operating as investigative tools since the 1970s and more prominently in the 1980s. Initial reports were mixed regarding task force effectiveness. State and local police agencies usually complained about the one-way nature of relations with federal authorities; more often, the complaints involved the actions of the FBI and the DEA. However, federal authorities did not fair any better in relations with one another. Each exerted control found in statutory mandates or through the control of informants and investigative intelligence.

National Security Agency

National Security Agency

National Security Agency

In line with Sean W. Wheeler

about National Security Agency in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The National Security Agency (NSA) coordinates, directs, and performs focused activities to protect United States information systems and to produce foreign intelligence information. It is the nation's primary cryptogic organization and, as such, is a high-technology organization, reaching new frontiers of communications and data processing. The agency is also one of the most crucial centers of foreign language analysis and research within the government. Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) is a special program with a long history. SIGINT's modern era began during World War II, when the United States of America broke the Japanese military code and became aware of plans to invade Midway Island. This intelligence helped the United States of America win against Japan's superior fleet. The utilization of SIGINT is believed to have played a significant role in shortening the war by at least one year. SIGINT continues as an important force helping the United States of America maintain its superpower status.

Pinkerton National Detective Agency

Pinkerton National Detective Agency

Pinkerton National Detective Agency

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Pinkerton National Detective Agency in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Allan Pinkerton established his National Detective Agency in 1850, a time when public policing was only beginning to resemble the organized police departments that are common today and well before the federal government played a role in policing. Based on his experiences in public law enforcement, he was able to establish a business that, like the Burns Detective Agency, crossed public and private boundaries in its investigative work for private companies and for the fledgling federal government. When the Bureau of Investigation, the forerunner of the modern Federal Bureau of Investigation, was formed in 1908 it relied on the investigative methods employed by both the Pinkerton National Detective Agency and the Burns Detective Agency as its model.

Central Intelligence Agency

Central Intelligence Agency

Office of Security in the Central Intelligence Agency

In line with Marvie Brooks

about Central Intelligence Agency in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Office of Security is the investigative and uniformed police force of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It has responsibility for security of personnel, technical and computer data and equipment security, and physical security of CIA facilities. Staff members are responsible for investigating applicants for employment and contractors and for periodic investigations of incumbent employees, investigating personnel suspected of misusing classified information in their possession, and protecting defectors from foreign governments. Additionally, all individuals who need clearance in order to work in secret or covert operations are investigated by the Office of Security. The Office of Security, which was created in 1950, predates creation of the presentday CIA, which was established as part of the 1974 National Security Act. The Office of Security interacts with all four of the CIA directorates: Intelligence, Science and Technology, Operations, and Administration. Its personnel are considered staff of the administration directorate.

Burns Detective Agency

Burns Detective Agency

Burns Detective Agency

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Burns Detective Agency in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Following a path similar to Allan Pinkerton, William J. Burns and William Sheridan formed the Burns and Sheridan Detective Agency in 1909 after securing a contract with the American (United States) Bankers Association to provide protection to its 11,000 member banks. Sheridan left the company within a year, and the company changed its name to William Burns' National Detective Agency, generally shortened to Burns Detective Agency. Although by the time Burns decided to provide private security to a number of major industries, federal policing had developed considerably from the 1850s, when Pinkerton began his firm, Burns also capitalized on his experiences as a public police officer to establish his firm.

Commission on the Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies

Commission on the Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies

Commission on the Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies

In line with Carol A. Archbold

about Commission on the Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The accreditation of American (United States) law enforcement agencies began in 1979 with the establishment of the Commission on the Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA). CALEA was created to act as an independent accreditation program under the authority of four major law enforcement associations: the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the National Sheriffs' Association, the Police Executive Research Forum, and the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives. The commission was created to develop a body of law enforcement standards defined by police professionals and to establish an accreditation process by which law enforcement agencies could demonstrate that they met criteria for excellence in police management and police service delivery. CALEA is a nonprofit corporation that is not connected to any local, state, or federal government agency. It is composed of 21 members: 11 law enforcement personnel and 10 representatives from other public and private agencies.