Tag Archives: Police

Law Enforcement Training

Law Enforcement Training

Law Enforcement Training: A Comparative Perspective

In line with Maria (Maki) Haberfeld

about Law Enforcement Training in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In many progressive countries, including the United States of America, training is an ongoing and constantly evolving venture; therefore, information about training curricula is constantly becoming obsolete. Nevertheless, the approaches some countries have taken to common training obstacles are worthy of consideration in comparative perspective. Three countries, the Netherlands, Finland, and Canada, have model approaches to professional police training. The Netherlands has adopted a useful model for addressing the need for specialization and general skills. Finland's dedication to comprehensive education has contributed to a highly professional and respected force. The Canadian approach, developed in an environment dedicated to community policing, is exemplary in the length of its programs, the variety of approaches offered, and its commitment to in-service training. In recent years the Dutch police service has undergone radical changes in its organization and training. Prior to joining the police service, all recruits follow one of three basic courses of training.

Law Enforcement Training in the United States

In line with Maria (Maki) Haberfeld

about Law Enforcement Training in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police training in the United States of America can be divided into four distinct categories: basic academy training (the basic police academy training), the field training officer (FTO) program, specialized and developmental training, and supervisory and management training. The term police academy usually refers to three main types of police academies in the United States of America: agency, regional, and college-sponsored. Agency schools are generally found in large municipal areas or are established for the state police or highway patrol. Regional academies handle the training functions for both large and small departments located in a designated geographical area. The college-sponsored training academies operate on the premises of postsecondary institutions, particularly community colleges. These college-sponsored academies allow a person to take police training and earn college credit. Modern police training has come a long way since the times when the training was so inadequate, or even nonexistent, that officers were ignorant of their own duties.

Mentally Illness

Mentally Illness

Police Response to the Mentally Illness

In line with Joseph A. Schafer & William M. Wells

about Mentally Illness in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The nature of police work frequently brings officers into contact with persons with mental illness (PMIs). The police are available around the clock and are often the first responders called to provide a range of social and public services. Unfortunately, most officers have limited knowledge of working with PMIs, and local mental health services may be inadequate to meet the needs of the citizens whom the police encounter. Nonetheless, officers must still attempt to achieve a disposition that benefits the community, the needs of the mentally ill, and the interests of their police department. Throughout its history, the criminal justice system has struggled to develop effective ways to deal with PMIs. At times, such efforts have been clear failures, although recent advances have improved the odds that PMIs will receive the services and treatments they need. Police officers often find themselves in contact with PMIs for a number of reasons.

Drug Testing

Drug Testing

Drug Testing of Employees

In line with Heather R. Draper & Richard C. Li

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Drug use became a serious concern in the workplace during the 1980s. Companies involved in the oil, chemical, and nuclear industry as well as travel and transportation sectors, became areas of concern especially when accidents occurred causing deaths and immense financial ramifications. Drug testing has evolved and is now used for a variety of reasons. The main uses for drug testing include screening potential employees during the interview process, creating safety precautions for workers and the surrounding public, and monitoring drug use in the prison population. Today all federal employees, transportation employees, prisoners, and athletes competing on the national, Olympic, or professional level are subject to drug testing under current federal laws. In addition to these federal guidelines, each state has adopted its own guidelines involving drug testing in the workplace. Many private sector companies are also adopting drug testing into their bylaws in order to achieve a drug-free workplace.

Drug Testing of Police

In line with Kim Holland & Jeffry T. Walker

about Drug Testing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Under the provisions of the Fourth Amendment, a search and seizure can only be made with a warrant, or without a warrant based on probable cause or under certain recognized exceptions. It was left to the courts, however, to determine such issues as whether intrusions beyond the body's surface were reasonable searches and whether individuals could expect to be free from bodily intrusions by government employers. Bodily intrusion, typically in the form of urine testing, is the primary method of drug testing employees. The level of reasonableness in these cases is typically addressed by balancing the employees' expectations of privacy against the agency's needs and interests in testing for the use of drugs. When it comes to law enforcement personnel, the issue of drug testing has an additional ethical dimension because police are generally held to a higher standard.

International Police Cooperation

International Police Cooperation

International Police Cooperation

In line with Michael Sadykiewicz

about International Police Cooperation in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police cooperation has only become more important in the era of globalization and the corresponding environment in which terrorism and other kinds of serious transnational crime can flow easily across borders. Close international cooperation among police services is essential to prevent and combat these rising worldwide dangers. There are many channels of international police cooperation. It can take place on the basis of agreements between countries, whether bilateral or multilateral. Cooperation can also take the form of adherence to agreements made by United Nations (U.N.) member countries based on resolutions, conventions, protocols, and other legal documents passed by respective bodies of the U.N. Another form of cooperation comes as a result of membership in subregional, regional, or global international police organizations; or from international voluntary police associations. The principal targets of international police cooperation are serious transnational crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary).

International Police Association

International Police Association

International Police Association

In line with Michael Sadykiewicz

about International Police Association in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The International Police Association (IPA), with more than 300,000 members in 58 countries, is the largest independent police organization in the world. It was founded by British police Sergeant Arthur Troop (1914-2000), on January 1, 1950. Its motto, in Esperanto, is “Servo per Amikeco” (Service Through Friendship). IPA is an independent body made up of members of the police service, both those on active duty and retired, and without distinction as to rank, sex, race, color, language, or religion. Its purpose is to create bonds of friendship and to promote international cooperation. The Association is committed to the principles set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as adopted by the United Nations in 1948. The aims of the IPA include developing cultural relationships among its members, broadening their general knowledge, and exchanging professional experiences.

Library of Congress

Library of Congress

Library of Congress Law Enforcement Forces (Police)

In line with Maria Kiriakova

about Library of Congress in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

There are more than 30 small federal police forces operating in the District of Columbia. The Library of Congress (LOC) Police is one such agency with only 122 sworn officers and five civilians on staff. The LOC Police operate within the Capitol Hill area along with the Government Printing Office (GPO) Police and the United States of America Capitol Police (USCP). All three police forces are part of the legislative branch of the federal government. The library was established for the use of Congress by law in 1800. Eventually its services were expanded to the attorney general of the United States of America and justices of the Court of last resort of the Country and to the general public by 1866. But the institution did not get its own special police agency until 1950. In 1987, LOC police officers were authorized to carry firearms (a nine-millimeter pistol) and make arrests. Unlike the USCP and the United States

Police

Police

Education of Police

In line with Stephen D. Mastrofski

about Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Improving the education of police has been an enduring feature of reform in America and other Western nations. Although the desirability of a professionally trained police force can be dated at least as far back as Sir Robert Peele (around 1830), the notion received support in America from a variety of police reformers, such as August Vollmer, Theodore Roosevelt, and the Wickersham Commission. Until the mid-20th century, the ambitions of reformers were modest compared to today's standards: first, hiring officers who could read and write, and somewhat later, recruiting officers who had completed a high school education. But after World War II, a high school education became the norm, and college education began to appear in some agencies as an appropriate goal, one that has become increasingly popular as a means of advancement in, if not admission to, the occupation.

Hiring Standards for Police

In line with Jess Maghan

about Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police agencies are governed and influenced by a political and governmental social system operating in interrelated roles with the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. Within the system, police hiring practices are influenced by federal, state, and local lawmaking bodies; city managers and mayors; corporation counsels and city planners; community advocates; and federal and state courts. Beneath these exigencies lies a broad and dynamic social system composed of cultural, educational, political, religious, and economic institutions, including the mass media that also shape this process. How police are recruited and hired, trained and retained, must be seen in the context of this vast and complex network of social institutions. The enormous progress during the past two decades in declaring operational efficacy, mission statements, and professional standards by individual police departments represents the most solid evidence for equitable hiring standards of American (United States) law enforcement.

Militarization of American Police

In line with Peter B. Kraska

about Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Examining the militarization of civilian police in the United States of America may seem, at first glance, an odd pursuit in light of the preoccupation in the literature with community policing, a trend that espouses moving away from the traditional paramilitary professional model toward a democratization of police organizations and services. To some police observers, a momentous shift has occurred in the relationship between the police and military: The traditional delineations between the military, police, and criminal justice system are blurring. In breaking with a long-standing tenet of democratic governance and a central feature of the modern nation-state, the traditional roles of the military handling threats to our nation's external security through threatening or actually waging war, and the police targeting internal security problems such as crime and illegal drugs, are becoming increasingly intermingled.

Physical Fitness and Training

In line with R. G. “Nick” McNickle

about Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Police officers who are unfit put their own lives, the lives of their partners, and the lives of the public at risk. Today, American (United States) police academies lasting 12 weeks or more graduate fit recruits. The unsolved problem for many police departments is the rapid and severe physical deterioration of too many of those academy graduates. The general definition of physical fitness as the ability to perform everyday activities without injury or undue fatigue applies to police but is incomplete. Police physical fitness refers also to the officer's ability to perform all job-related tasks successfully. The earliest police system in America began as a night watchman function in Bigg Apple (New York) City without physical training standards of any kind, and it continued that way for the rest of the 19th century. In the first two decades of the 20th century, scholars began to study all aspects of police training.

Police Fiction

In line with Frankie Y. Bailey

about Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The evolution of crime/detective fiction culminates in the 20th century with the police procedural novel. However, the roots of modern police fiction can be traced to the 19th century. Police fiction developed in conjunction with and parallel to developments in law enforcement in Europe and later in the United States of America. The real-life exploits of criminal investigators and the methods used by police detectives influenced the works of writers of fiction. In 1829, Eugéne François Vidocq, the former criminal who became chief of the SÛreté, published his Memoires de Vidocq . Vidocq's account of his career inspired a number of writers, including Edgar Allan Poe, “the father of the mystery short story” and creator of the brilliant armchair detective, Monsieur C. Auguste Dupin (Richardson, 1999, p. 479). In England, Charles Dickens and Wilkie Collins offered the early British police detective in the context of a fictional investigation.

Police Management

In line with Angelo Pisani & John Rowland

about Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Because policing is government's primary instrument in achieving social control, its management is of particular importance. Management theory attempts to identify and predict the behavior of organizations and their members. Police management refers to the administrative functions associated with managing a law enforcement agency, including identifying and training qualified candidates, directing and coordinating personnel, monitoring the performance of personnel in areas such as regulatory enforcement and their ability to provide the public with access to existing services, and practicing crime prevention and reduction. For modern police managers to apply theory with street reality in an effort to develop innovative strategies, it is essential that they possess an understanding of the historical foundations of management (or organizational) theory.

Public Perceptions/ Attitudes toward Police

In line with Joseph A. Schafer

about Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The idea that the police should concern themselves with their public image would seem to be common sense. Only in recent decades, however, has this ideal truly entrenched itself within America. Largely driven by the civil unrest and discontent with the government that emerged in the 1960s, public perceptions of the police have become a legitimate police concern, as well as a growing area of social science inquiry. Despite what many police officers may believe, the majority of citizens hold favorable impressions of their local police. Factors shaping individual impressions include citizen demographics, contact with the police, and community context. A founding principle of modern policing is that the efficacy of the police depends upon the trust and support of the general public.

U.S. Park Police

U.S. Park Police

U.S. Park Police

In line with Katherine B. Killoran

about U.S. Park Police in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The United States Park Police (USPP) is an urban, uniformed law enforcement agency that is part of the National Park Service (NPS) under the Department of the Interior (DOI). Although the USPP has jurisdiction throughout the NPS and certain other federal and state lands, it primarily provides law enforcement services in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, Gateway National Recreation Area, Ellis Island, and the Statue of Liberty in Bigg Apple (New York) and New Jersey and the Presidio Trust Area and Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco. In the District of Columbia, USPP officers provide protective services for many national monuments, memorials, park areas, the Mall, historic residences, and highways. Although concentrated in the above areas, park police personnel can be detailed elsewhere in the national park system if required.

Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping

Police and Peacekeeping in the United Nations

In line with Kenneth C. Payumo

about Peacekeeping in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The United Nations (UN) Civilian Police's role in peacekeeping and other UN field missions has become integral to many UN operations. The police contingents participated in 13 different missions around the globe at the end of 2003. At that time, more than 7,000 police officers from 80 countries conducted patrols, provided training, advised local police services, helped develop and ensure compliance with international human rights standards, and assisted in a wide range of other fields. As their deployments are to conflict and postconflict areas, UN Civilian Police help to create a safer environment where communities will be better protected and criminal activities will be prevented, disrupted, and deterred. The diverse national experiences of United Nations Civilian Police officers and their commitment to peace and security are their best tools to promote the rule of law. The mandate of United Nations Civilian Police is different in each mission.

Veterans

Veterans

Police and Security Service of the Department of Veterans Affairs

In line with Vincent A. Munch

about Veterans in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Veterans Administration (VA) Police and Security Service is responsible for protecting patients (former military personnel), visitors, employees, and property at department facilities, which include 172 medical centers, 551 clinics, and 115 national cemeteries in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, and the Philippines. The Police and Security Service is one of three sections under the Office of Security and Law Enforcement (OS&LE). The OS&LE provides guidance, consultation, investigative, and direct operational support to the VA. A deputy assistant secretary for security and law enforcement heads the unit and oversees and develops policy and procedures related to VA security as well as officer training. More than 2,000 officers are assigned specifically to medical facilities.