Tag Archives: Policing

Federal Policing in Indian Country

Federal Policing in Indian Country

Federal Policing in Indian Country

In line with Dorothy H. Bracey

about Federal Policing in Indian Country in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Native Americans have a unique relationship with the government of the United States of America. On the one hand, tribes are considered sovereign nations that enjoy a government-to-government relationship with federal authorities. On the other hand, Indians are considered wards of the government whose assets must be held in trust for them. The tension between these two views of Indian nations affects every aspect of their government. Law enforcement is a prominent example. Chapter 18, section 1151 of the United States of America Code defines Indian Country as any land granted by treaty or allotment to Nations, tribes, reservations, communities, colonies, or individuals and recognized as such by the federal government. Today there are close to 300 federally recognized reservations and communities. Relocation policies dating from the 1800s have caused some reservations to be shared by two or more tribes.

Private Policing

Private Policing

Private Policing

In line with Brian Forst

about Private Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

We tend to think of policing as a public sector institution, but there are, in fact, more private security personnel than sworn police officers. This entry describes this other, more pervasive side of policing. It describes the forces that produced the growth in this industry and the effects on public safety. It concludes with a look to the future of privatization, with an identification of critical issues related to current trends and an examination of directions that have been identified as offering promise for improving service in both the public and private domains of policing. Privatization typically means the absence of government in the provision of protective services. Private citizens and institutions often buy services to protect life and property and to reduce fear, and they determine how these services will be allocated.

Policing

Policing

Problem-Oriented Policing

In line with Michael S. Scott

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Problem-oriented policing is a comprehensive framework for improving police service that was first articulated by law professor Herman Goldstein in 1979. Since then, many police agencies and police research institutions have sought to incorporate its principles and methods into the routine business of policing. Goldstein (2001) summarized the basic elements of problem-oriented policing as follows: Problem-oriented policing is an approach to policing in which discrete pieces of police business (each consisting of a cluster of similar incidents, whether crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) or acts of disorder, that the police are expected to handle) are subject to microscopic examination (drawing on the especially honed skills of crime analysts and the accumulated experience of operating field personnel) in hopes that what is freshly learned about each problem will lead to discovering a new and more effective strategy for dealing with it.

Railroad Policing

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Private railroad companies established their own police forces as early as 1847. The construction of railroads contributed to trespassing and thievery and the layouts of rail yards and storage material led to placing value goods distant from established communities, many of which lacked organized police forces. Even in cities that had begun to develop their own police forces after the 1850s and 1860s, railroads were concerned with the safety of passengers and their luggage. After the Civil War, hobos took to rail facilities, setting up squatter camps, traveling at no cost, and often taking whatever they could along the way, and although train robberies occurred throughout the nation, in the years after the 1880s until the turn of the century they became closely associated with banditry in the American (United States) West.

Theories of Policing

In line with Peter K. Manning

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

A discussion of theories of policing must first define police and policing, then distinguish types of policing, and then theorize about them. There are five types of policing, one of which is Anglo-American (United States) democratic policing, and this latter has some notable features. Theories of policing do not exist. There are, however, some metaphoric sketches of policing that make salient certain of their features and therefore can be used to describe police practice. There are at least five international or global types of policing: Islamic-traditional, authoritarian, democratic, Asian, and continental (Bayley, 1996). The Anglo-American (United States) democratic police are the focus of this entry. Although all nation-states have security police that are linked to the protection of sacred people, places, and buildings, and these police have, in theory, rather wide powers, democratic societies have sought, except in times of extreme crisis, to limit police powers.

Tribal Policing

In line with Dorothy H. Bracey

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Responsibility for policing Indian country has belonged to the federal government since the early 1800s. The agency carrying out that responsibility is the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Law Enforcement Services, located in the Department of the Interior, with officers who are federally trained and certified. In some circumstances, however, either state or tribal authorities police Indian lands. Regardless of who does the actual policing, questions of jurisdiction bedevil law enforcement in Indian country. Congressional actions and Court of last resort of the Country decisions made over many years have created complex arrangements that tend to expand federal power and diminish Native American (United States) sovereignty. The first of these is the Major crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) Act (1885), which, with supporting legislation, gives federal authorities jurisdiction over almost all felonies. This means that the small number of FBI agents near Indian lands have investigatory responsibility for all major crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary).

Women in Policing

In line with Aigi Resetnikova & Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Since the 1970s and 1980s, the roles of women in law enforcement in any particular country have generally mirrored the social attitudes and prevailing customs toward women in the larger society. Contrary to the United States of America, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and, to a lesser extent European and African nations, in many parts of the world women police are assigned to typically feminine jobs supervising or assisting women and children. This is particularly so in countries where women have not been accorded full social, economic, and political equality. These differences represent a major change from the early decades of the 20th century, when all countries that employed policewomen assigned them solely to working on cases involving women and children, with the exception of a few that assigned them to uniformed traffic control in major cities.

Women in State and Local Policing

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The official recognition of women in policing in the United States of America is usually associated with the appointment of Alice Stebbins Wells to the Los Angeles Police Department in 1910 as the first woman to be called a “policewoman.” Wells's employment set in motion a movement for policewomen that, despite setbacks, culminated in the late 1960s and early 1970s with women winning the right to equal employment in policing. However, women had served both officially and unofficially as matrons in prisons and jails, and as sheriffs' deputies, since the late 1880s. What made Wells different was not just that she was actually called a policewoman; her appointment was not only for the convenience of women caring for women, but was also part of a larger movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries both to reform policing and to increase the roles of women in public events and local government.

Community Policing

Community Policing

Community Policing

In line with Wesley G. Skogan

about Community Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Community policing may be the most important development in policing in the past quarter century. Across the country, police chiefs report that they are moving toward this new model of policing, which supplements traditional crime fighting with prob-lem-solving and prevention-oriented approaches that emphasize the role of the public in helping set police priorities. What police departments are doing when they do community policing varies a great deal. Agencies point to a long list of projects as evidence that they are involved. These range from bike and foot patrols to drug awareness programs in schools, home security inspections, storefront offices, and citizen advisory committees. In some places, community policing is in the hands of special neighborhood officers, whereas in other places, it involves the transformation of the entire police department.

Community Policing: A Caribbean Case

In line with Keith Carrington

about Community Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Many police departments have become victims of the “means over ends” syndrome because the administration focused primarily on organization and operations while paying little attention to their overall performance (Goldstein, 2002). Such internal emphasis prevents the police from dealing effectively with crime and disorder. In the Caribbean, the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service's (TTPS) shift to community policing in 1991 in many ways represents the many countries in the Caribbean that have adopted a community policing approach. The experience of Trinidad and Tobago shows how the administration reacted to concerns about the organization's handling of crime and other social problems. Community policing was introduced to complement the service's traditional approach to policing. The strategy was expected to change the organization's reactive approach to crime fighting, which excluded community input, to a proactive approach with community involvement.

International Community Policing

In line with Mitch Librett & Rainer Kroll

about Community Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Community policing is essentially a conceptual frame for a new paradigm of policing that was developed in academic circles in the United States of America. The tumultuous events of the 1960s, including mass civil disorder and rising crime rates, prompted political effort to reevaluate police's effectiveness as an institution. Media coverage of overly reactive and forceful police response to apparently peaceful civil rights demonstrations and violent disorder in some of the largest cities resulted in widespread public perception of the police as a violent and ineffectual institution. Worse, there was little confidence that policing was capable of suppressing the upsurge in violent, interpersonal crime that seemed to accompany the vivid scenarios viewed nightly on the national news.

Municipal Policing

Municipal Policing

Municipal Policing

In line with Drew Diamond

about Municipal Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The concept of municipal policing is the backbone of public safety and order maintenance in Western democracies. Local control of government services is a core value in free societies. Conversely, in nondemocratic countries, policing generally falls to the military. Military systems support the prevailing order of the day, whereas municipal policing upholds laws, justice, and the social values of communities. Municipalities are primarily urban political units having corporate status and, usually, powers of self-government. Police forces are made up of trained officers entrusted by a government with maintenance of public peace and order, enforcement of laws, and prevention and detection of crime. Contemporary municipal police departments operating in democratic societies are, for the most part, publicly financed, publicly accountable, paramilitary in structure and appearance, bureaucratic, and on duty 24 hours a day. Most police agencies are organized functionally into line (patrol and investigative operations), staff, and support functions.

Military Policing

Military Policing

Military Police, Department of the Army, Department of Defense

In line with Dorothy Moses Schulz

about Military Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Military Police Corps of the United States Army traces its roots to the Revolutionary War, but despite its presence in some form during each subsequent war in which the United States of America was involved, it was not until 1941 that it was established as a permanent branch of the Army. Each arm of the United States military, which includes the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard, has its own police force. On military installations around the world, the Army's Military Police Corp, known as military police or MPs, performs roles similar to a civilian police force. MPs enforce military laws and regulations, control traffic, prevent and investigate crime, apprehend military absentees (soldiers absent without leave), and provide physical security for military personnel and property. They also maintain custody of military prisoners.

Military Policing

In line with Angela S. Maitland

about Military Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The United States military is comprised of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. Each branch of the armed forces has an internal law enforcement force that is unique to its own branch and that has specific peace- and wartime missions. Law enforcement forces, in general, are responsible for protecting military resources and bases; protecting coastal waters and shores; enforcing military law and regulations; preventing crime; protecting individuals, property, and classified information; and guarding military correctional facilities. The United States Army Military Police School at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, provides law enforcement training for all branches of service. Training for law enforcement personnel typically includes an average of 7-28 weeks of classroom instruction. Classes include instruction on civil and military laws, law enforcement administration, investigation procedures and techniques, traffic control, and prisoner control and discipline.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action in Policing

In line with Dennis Kenney

about Affirmative Action in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Throughout the past 150 years, the police and many of the communities they serve have struggled with a history of tension and conflict, often fueled by allegations that officers target and harass racial minorities while failing to root out racist attitudes and practices within their own ranks. Recent highprofile cases such as the beating of Rodney King in Los Angeles and the assault on Abner Louima in Bigg Apple (New York) have served only to heighten concerns. Internally, it remains true that most American (United States) law enforcement agencies do not accurately reflect the communities that they serve. The Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that as of 1997, only 6% of all fulltime sworn police department employees were women, 12% were African American, 8% were Hispanic, and 2% were from other ethnic backgrounds. Comparatively, women comprise 46.5% of the United States population.

Campus

Campus

Campus Policing

In line with Don Hummer

about Campus in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In response to the homicide of a Lehigh University student in 1986, and as a direct result of tireless campaigning by that victim's family, the United States Congress passed the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1990. The bill mandated institutions of higher education to make both annual crime statistics as well as a comprehensive plan for student safety available to campus constituents upon request. This groundbreaking legislation (along with a number of other bills passed in the years since), coupled with steadily increasing campus crime rates, has led to vast expansions of existing crime prevention programs as well as the implementation of new and innovative responses to incidences of violence by both campus public safety departments and administrators at United States colleges and universities.

Gays

Gays

Gays in Policing

In line with Nickie Phillips

about Gays in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Like a number of occupations, policing provides a challenging employment context for the gay population. Some gay officers have experienced not only disapproval and/or discrimination from fellow police officers, but also find that the gay community is hostile toward them as well. This is due, in part, to law enforcement's history of bias toward homosexuals. For example, a number of questions from psychological tests used in the past as part of a police recruit's application process were specifically used to weed out gay men from the field. As a result, gay officers may be closeted at work, and some have even hidden their occupation from peers in the gay community. The relationship between gay men and women and the policing community has been a tenuous one, with well-documented incidents when police themselves have harassed gays and ignored their victimization.

Depolicing

Depolicing

Depolicing

In line with Heather Mac Donald

about Depolicing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

During the 1990s, police officers in the United States of America came under attack for the alleged practice of racial profiling. Activists accused law enforcement of singling out African-American (United States) men for stops and searches on the basis of race. The term racial profiling was used by civil liberties groups to describe this allegation. The decade also witnessed several high-profile police shootings of civilians, primarily minorities, which were blamed on officer bias as well. As a result of the intense criticism that accompanied these incidents, many officers backed off of assertive policing-a phenomenon known as depolicing. In many jurisdictions where the charge of racial profiling was particularly vitriolic, the result was a dramatic decrease in stops and arrests with a corresponding dramatic increase in crime.