Tag Archives: PR

Profiling

Profiling

Geographic Analysis or Profiling

In line with James L. LeBeau

about Profiling in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Geographic profiling is a methodology for delineating the probable area containing the residence of an unknown offender ostensibly responsible for a series of crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). The probable area of the offender's residence stems from an analysis of the locations of a series of crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary). Therefore, geographic profiling can be used for a series of crimes (there is more information about criminal law in the American Legal Encyclopedia and about crimes and criminals vocabulary) or a single crime that contains multiple locations or scenes. Geographic profiling has been used mostly for serial homicides, rapes, and arsons, but its most vivid or notable application was with the DC Beltway Sniper cases during October 2002. The idea of geographic profiling has been around since the mid-1980s, but it was not until the mid1990s that the idea was converted into operational software for development and testing.

Racial Analysis or Profiling

In line with Lorie Fridell

about Profiling in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Starting in the 1990s, law enforcement agencies nationwide faced accusations of “racial profiling.” Generally, the citizens complained that police were targeting racial and ethnic minorities for vehicle stops because of a heightened suspicion that they were disproportionately involved in criminal activity. Indicative of the breadth of national concern was the December 1999 Gallup poll that showed a majority of both whites and blacks surveyed believed that racial profiling was prevalent.

Prosecutors

Prosecutors

Prosecutors

In line with Andrew Sonner

about Prosecutors in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Prosecutors are often called America's “chief law enforcement officers.” That term, however, is not sufficiently descriptive and leads to a lack of appreciation of the role of the prosecutor as an officer of the court. Prosecutors are public figures and can establish the tone and public perception of the fairness of law enforcement and justice administration. By whatever name, the prosecutors, without a doubt, are the dominant actors in American (United States) criminal justice. As the Court of last resort of the Country commented in Young v. United States of America (1987), “Between the private life of the citizen and the public glare of criminal accusations stands the prosecutor. [The prosecutor has] the power to employ the full machinery of the state in scrutinizing any given individual.” The prosecutors' dominance comes from their deciding which charges to bring, whom to charge, whether to proceed to trial, and what punishment to recommend for those found guilty.

Probation Officers

Probation Officers

Probation Officers

In line with Michael Jacobson

about Probation Officers in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In 1841, John Augustus, a Boston bootmaker, convinced Judge Peter Oxenbridge Thatcher of Boston Police Court to release into his custody a man charged with being a common drunkard. After a 3week probationary period, the man convinced the judge that he had changed his ways and, instead of jail, received only a nominal fine. Thus was born the first probation officer and the beginnings of probation in the United States of America. More than 160 years later, Augustus would probably be dumbfounded at the sheer size and scope of the United States probation system. As of 2002, more than 3.9 million people were under a sentence of probation in the United States of America, almost twice as many people as in United States jails and prisons (Glaze, 2003). Not only is probation the largest alternative to incarceration, it is also by far the largest segment of the United States

Private Security

Private Security

Private Security Industry Growth in Western Countries

In line with R. van Steden & L.W.J.C. Huberts

about Private Security in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The organization of policing has been restructured globally over the last 25 years. A major development is that certain public functions of social control and order maintenance are shifting toward private organizations. In this respect, it is worth noting the “multilateralization process” of providing security. Both the state and nonstate sectors are directly involved in the governance of security, and public-private divisions of tasks have become blurred. Public authorities are now embedded in “nodes of governance”-a multifarious interlocking of state, market, and civil society. It is particularly commercial organizations in the West that play an increasingly important role in protecting the citizens of nation-states. In some contemporary societies, uniformed private guards even outnumber national police forces. Private contract security companies employing guards are most well known and most visible in shopping malls, business complexes, airports, and other quasi-public spaces.

Private Policing

Private Policing

Private Policing

In line with Brian Forst

about Private Policing in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

We tend to think of policing as a public sector institution, but there are, in fact, more private security personnel than sworn police officers. This entry describes this other, more pervasive side of policing. It describes the forces that produced the growth in this industry and the effects on public safety. It concludes with a look to the future of privatization, with an identification of critical issues related to current trends and an examination of directions that have been identified as offering promise for improving service in both the public and private domains of policing. Privatization typically means the absence of government in the provision of protective services. Private citizens and institutions often buy services to protect life and property and to reduce fear, and they determine how these services will be allocated.

Probable Cause

Probable Cause

Probable Cause

In line with James R. Acker

about Probable Cause in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

In common with other Bill of Rights provisions, the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution safeguards fundamental individual liberties against unjustified encroachment by the government. Privacy interests-“the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects”-lie at the heart of the Fourth Amendment. The Amendment's first clause forbids unreasonable searches and seizures, and the second provides that “no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” Probable cause is integral to the warrant clause, and its presence or absence often (although not inevitably) helps answer whether searches and seizures conducted without the prior authorization of a warrant are unreasonable.

Prohibition

Prohibition

Prohibition Law Enforcement

In line with Vincent DelCastillo

about Prohibition in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

Although the term prohibition can refer to a variety of legally banned activities including narcotics manufacture, sale, and possession, it is commonly understood to mean the period between 1920 and 1933 during which the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was in effect. Prohibition was intended to reduce the consumption of alcohol, seen by prohibition advocates as a major cause of crime, poverty, high death rates, a weakening economy, and declining quality of life. It is interesting to note, however, that the first state laws prohibiting the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages were enacted as early as 1838 in Tennessee and in 1846 in Maine. By 1900, 18 states had enacted prohibition laws and many states maintained laws banning the manufacture and sale of liquor after the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment until 1959 when Oklahoma, the last dry state, repealed its prohibition laws.

Privacy Act

Privacy Act

Privacy Act

In line with Robert Gellman

about Privacy Act in the Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement:

The Privacy Act of 1974 (5 United StatesC. 552a) is a federal law that requires each federal agency to follow privacy and records management rules for most compilations of personal information maintained by the agency. Changes in information technology have made significant parts of the act outdated. The Privacy Act of 1974 has sometimes been called a Watergate reform because it became law at the end of the Congress that served during the resignation of President Richard Nixon. However, concerns about privacy and computers were widespread by the early 1970s, and the law's intellectual origins are deeper than a response to political events. Congressional hearings on privacy and computers date back to the mid-1960s. In 1972, Elliot Richardson, then secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established the Advisory Committee on Automated Personal Data Systems.